# Appendix A: Conversion Factors

TABLE A.1

Alphabetical Conversion Tables

 To Convert From Do This Atmospheres to inches of mercury @32°F (Atm to inHg32 (atm)* 29.9213 = (inHg32) Atmospheres to inches of mercury @60°F (Atm to inHg60) (atm) * 30.0058 = (inHg60) Atmospheres to millibars (atm to mb) (atm) * 1013.25 = (mb) Atmospheres to pascals (atm to Pa) (atm)* 101325 = (Pa) Atmospheres to pounds/square inch (atm to lb/in2) (atm) * 14.696 = (lb/in2) Centimeters to feet (cm to ft) (cm) * 0.032808399 = (ft) Centimeters to inches (cm to in) (cm) *0.39370079 = (in) Centimeters to meters (cm to m) (cm) * 0.01 = (m) Centimeters to millimeters (cm to mm) (cm) * 10 = (mm) Degrees to radians (deg to rad) (deg) * 0.01745329 = (rad) Degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit (C to F) [(C) * 1.8] + 32 = (F) Degrees Celsius to degrees Kelvin (C to K) (C) + 273.15 = (K) Degrees Celsius to degrees Rankine (C to R) [(C)* 1.8] + 491.67 = (R) Degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius (F to C) 1(F) - 32)] * 0.555556 = (C) Degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Kelvin (F to K) [(F) *0.555556]+255.37 = (K) Degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Rankine (F to R) (F) + 459.67 = (R) Degrees Kelvin to degrees Celsius (K to C) (K) - 273.15 = (C) Degrees Kelvin to degrees Fahrenheit (K to F) [(K)-255.371 * 1.8 = (F) Degrees Kelvin to degrees Rankine (K to R) Я II 00 * Я Degrees Rankine to degrees Celsius (R to C) RR) -491.671 *0.555556 = (C) Degrees Rankine to degrees Fahrenheit (R to F) (R) _ 459.67 = (F) Degrees Rankine to degrees Kelvin (R to K) (R) * 0.555556 = (K) Feet to centimeters (ft to cm) (ft) * 30.48 = (cm) Feet to meters (ft to m) (ft) * 0.3048 = (ft to m) Feet to miles (ft to mi) (ft) *0.000189393 = (mi) Feet/minute to meters/second (ft/min to m/s) (ft/min) * 0.00508 = (m/s) Feet/minute to miles/hour (ft/min to mph) (ft/min) * 0.01136363 = (mph) Feet/second to kilometers/hour (ft/s to kph) (ft/s) * 1.09728 = (kph) Feet/second to knots (ft/s to kt) (ft/s) * 0.5924838 = (kt)

TABLE A.1

Alphabetical Conversion Tables (Continued)

 To Convert From Do This Feet/second to meters/second (ft/s to m/s) (ft/s) * 0.3048 = (m/s) Feet/second to miles/hour (ft/s to mph) (ft/s) *0.681818 = (mph) Grams/cubic centimeter to pounds/cubic foot (gm/cm3 to Ib/ft3) (gm/cm3) * 62.427961 = (Ib/ft3) Grams/cubic meter to pounds/cubic foot (gm/m3 to Ib/ft3) (gm/m3) * 0.000062427961 = (Ib/ft3) Hectopascals to millibars (hPa to mb) Nothing, they are equivalent units Inches to centimeters (in to cm) (in) * 2.54 = (cm) Inches to millimeters (in to mm) (in) * 25.4 = (mm) Inches of mercury @32°F to atmospheres (inHg32 to atm) (inHg32)* 0.0334211 = (atm) Inches of mercury @32°F to millibars (inHg32 to mb) (inHg32)* 33.8639 = (mb) Inches of mercury @32°F to pounds/square inch (inHg32 to Ib/in2) (inHg32> * 0.49115 = (Ib/in2) Inches of mercury @60°F to atmospheres (inHg60 to atm) (inHg60) * 0.0333269 = (atm) Inches of mercury @60°F to millibars (inHg60 to mb) (inHg60) * 33.7685 = (mb) Inches of mercury @60°F to pounds/square inch (inHg60 to Ib/in2) (inHg60) * 0.48977 = (Ib/in2) Kilograms/cubic meters to pounds/cubic foot (kg/mJ to Ib/ft3) (kg/m3) * 0.062427961 = (Ib/ft3) Kilograms/cubic meters to slugs/cubic foot (kg/m3 to slug/ft3) (kg/m3) * 0.001940323 = (slug/ft3) Kilometers to meters (km to m) (km)* 1000 = (m) Kilometers to miles (km to mi) (km) * 0.62137119 = (mi) Kilometers to nautical miles (km to nmi) (km) * 0.5399568 = (nmi) Kilometers/hour to feet/second (kph to ft/s) (kph) *0.91134 = (ft/s) Kilometers/hour to knots (kph to kt) (kph) * 0.5399568 = (kt) Kilometers/hour to meters/second (kph to m/s) (kph) * 0.277777 = (m/s) Kilometers/hour to miles/hour (kph to mph) (kph) * 0.62137119 = (mph) Kilopascals to millibars (kPa to mb) (kPa) * 10 = (mb) Knots to feet/second (kt to ft/s) (kt) * 1.6878099 = (ft/s) Knots to kilometers/hour (kt to kph) (kt) * 1.852 = (kph) Knots to meters/second (kt to m/s) (kt)* 0.514444 = (m/s) Knots to miles/hour (kt to mph) (kt) * 1.1507794 = (mph) Knots to nautical miles/hour (kt to nmph) Nothing, they are equivalent units Langleys/minute to watts/square meter (ly/min to W/m2) (ly/min) * 698.339 = (W/m2)

TABLE A.1

Alphabetical Conversion Tables (Continued)

 To Convert From Do This Watts/square meter to langleys/minute (W/m2 to ly/min) (W/m2) * 0.00143197 = (ly/min) Meters to centimeters (m to cm) (m) * 100 = (cm) Meters to feet (m to ft) (m)* 3.2808399 = (ft) Meters to kilometers (m to km) (m) * 0.001 = (km) Meters to miles (m to mi) (m)‘ 0.00062137119 = (mi) Meters/second to feet/minute (m/s to ft/min) (m/s) * 196.85039 = (ft/min) Meters/second to feet/second (m/s to ft/s) (m/s) * 3.2808399 = (ft/s) Meters/second to kilometers/hour (m/s to kph) (m/s) * 3.6 = (kph) Meters/second to knots (m/s to kt) (m/s) * 1.943846 = (kt) Meters/second to miles/hour (m/s to mph) (m/s) * 2.2369363 = (mph) Miles to feet (mi to ft) (mi) * 5280 = (ft) Miles to kilometers (mi to km) (mi) * 1.609344 = (km) Miles to meters (mi to m) (mi) * 1609.344 = (m) Miles/hour to feet/minute (mph to ft/min) (mph) * 88 = (ft/min) Miles/hour to feet/second (mph to ft/s) (mph) * 1.466666 = (ft/s) Miles/hour to kilometers/hour (mph to kph) (mph) * 1.609344 = (kph) Miles/hour to knots (mph to kt) (mph) * 0.86897624 = (kt) Miles/hour to meters/second (mph to m/s) (mph) * 0.44704 = (m/s) Millibars to atmospheres (mb to atm) (mb) * 0.000986923 = (atm) Millibars to hectopascals (mb to hPa) Nothing, they are equivalent units Millibars to inches of mercury @32°F (mb to inHg32) (mb) * 0.02953 = (inHg32) Millibars to inches of mercury @60°F (mb to inHg60) (mb) * 0.02961 = (inHg60) Millibars to kilopascals (mb to kPa) (mb) * 0.1 = (kPa) Millibars to millimeters of mercury @32°F (mb to mm Hg) (mb) * 0.75006 = (mm Hg) Millibars to millimeters of mercury @60°F (mb to mm Hg) (mb) * 0.75218 = (mm Hg) Millibars to newtons/square meter (mb to N/m2) (mb) *100 = (N/m2) Millibars to pascals (mb to Pa) (mb) * 100 = (Pa) Millibars to pounds/square foot (mb to lb/ft2) (mb) *2.088543 = (lb/ft2) Millibars to pounds/square inch (mb to lb/in2) (mb) *0.0145038 = (lb/in2) Millimeters to centimeters (mm to cm) (mm) * 0.1 = (cm) Millimeters to inches (mm to in) (mm) * 0.039370078 = (in) Millimeters of mercury @32°F to millibars (mm Hg to mb) (mm Hg) * 1.33322 = (mb) Millimeters of mercury @60°F to millibars (mm Hg to mb) (mm Hg) * 1.32947 = (mb) Nautical miles to kilometers (nmi to km) (nmi) * 1.852 = (km)

TABLE A.1

Alphabetical Conversion Tables (Continued)

 To Convert From Do This Nautical miles to statute miles (nmi to mi) (nmi) * 1.1507794 = (mi) Nautical miles/hour to knots (nmpli to kt) Nothing, they are equivalent units Newtons/square meter to millibars (N/m2 to mb) (N/m2) * 0.01 = (mb) Pascals to atmospheres (Pa to atm) (Pa) * 0.000009869 = (atm) Pascals to millibars (Pa to mb) (Pa) * 0.01 = (mb) Pounds/cubic foot to grams/cubic centimeter (lb/ft3 to gm/cm3) (lb/ft3) * 0.016018463 = (gm/cm3) Pounds/cubic foot to grams/cubic meter (lb/ft3 to gm/m3) (lb/ft3) * 16018.46327 = (gm/m3) Pounds/cubic foot to kilograms/cubic meter (lb/ft3 to kg/m3) (lb/ft3)* 16.018463 = (kg/m3) Pounds/square foot to millibars (lb/ft2 to mb) (lb/ft2) * 0.478803 = (mb) Pounds/square inch to atmospheres (lb/in2 to atm) (lb/in2) * 0.068046 = (atm) Pounds/square inch to inches of mercury @32°F (lb/in2 to inHg32) (lb/in2) * 2.03602 = (inHg32) Pounds/square inch to inches of mercury @60°F (lb/in2 to inHg60) (lb/in2) * 2.04177 = (inHg60) Pounds/square inch to millibars (lb/in2 to mb) (lb/in2) * 68.9474483 = (mb) Radians to degrees (rad to deg) (rad) * 57.29577951 = (deg) Slugs/cubic foot to kilograms/cubic meter (slug/ft3 to kg/m3) (slug/ft3) * 515.378 = (kg/m3) Statute miles to nautical miles (mi to nmi) (mi) * 0.86897624 = (nmi)

Note: Follow simple formulas to make conversions in speed, pressure, and various units; for example. MPH toM/SorCtoF.

Source: CSGNetwork, Conversion Factors Table, www.csgnetwork.com/convfactorstable.html.

TABLE A.2

Metric Tons to Barrels (Crude Oil)

 Abu Dhabi 7.624 Denmark 7.65 Algeria 7.661 Ecuador 7.58 Argentina 7.196 France 7.287 Austria 6.974 Bahrain 7.335 Albania 6.672 Brazil 7.315 Angola 7.206 Bulgaria 7.3 Australia 7.775 Canada 7.428 Bolivia 8.086 China 7.3 Brunei 7.334 Congo 7.478 Burma 7.464 Czechoslovakia 6.782 Chile 7.802 Dubai 7.295 Colombia 7.054 ЕЯУР‘ 7.24 Cuba 6.652 Gabon 7.245 Germany 7.223 Hungary 7.63 India 7.441 Indonesia 7.348 Iran 7.37 Iraq 7.453 Japan 7.352 Italy 6.813 Libya 7.615 Kuwait 7.281 Mexico 7.104 Malaysia 7.709 Morocco 7.602 Mongolia 7.3 Neutral Zone 6.825 Netherlands 6.816 New Zealand 8.043 New Guinea 7.468 Norway 7.444 Nigeria 7.41 Pakistan 7.308 Oman 7.39 Poland 7.419 Peru 7.517 Romania 7.453 Qatar 7.573 Senegal 7.535 Saudi Arabia 7.338 Spain 7.287 Sharjah 7.65 Taiwan 7.419 Syria 6.94 Tunisia 7.709 Trinidad 6.989 United Arab Emirates 7.522 Turkey 7.161 United States 7.418 United Kingdom 7.279 Zaire 7.206 USSR 7.35 Venezuela 7.005 Yugoslavia 7.407

TABLE A.3

Metric Tons to Barrels (Products)

 Refined Products Other Products Aviation gasoline 8.90 Grease 6.30 Motor gasoline 8.50 Paraffin oil, pure 7.14 White spirits 8.50 Paraffin wax 7.87 Kerosene 7.75 Petrolatum 7.87 Jet fuel 8.00 Asphalt and road oil 6.06 Distillate gas and diesel oil 7.46 Petroleum coke 5.50 Residual fuel oil 6.66 Bitumen 6.06 Lubricating oil 7.00 LPG 11.60 Miscellaneous products 7.00

TABLE A.4 Crude Oil Measurea

 From Tons Long Tons To Barrels Gallons (Imperial) Gallons (U.S.) Tons/ Year Tons (metric) 1 0.984 Multiply by 7.33 256 308 Long tons 1.016 1 7.45 261 313 Barrels 0.136 0.134 1 35 42 Gallons (Imperial) 0.00391 0.0383 0.0286 1 1.201 Gallons (U.S.) 0.00325 0.00319 0.0238 0.833 1 Barrels/day 49.8

a Based on average Arabian light (33.5 API gravity).

TABLE A.5

Refined Product Measures

 To Convert: Barrels to Tons Tons to Barrels Barrels/Day to Tons/Year Tons/Year to Barrels/Day Motor spirit 0.118 Multiply by 8.45 43.2 0.0232 Kerosene 0.128 7.80 46.8 0.0214 Gas oil/diesel 0.133 7.50 48.7 0.0205 Fuel oil 0.149 6.70 54.5 0.0184

TABLE A.6 Calorific Equivalent

 One Million Tonnes of Oil Approximately Equals Heat Units In Btu's 40 x 1012 In therms 397 x 106 In teracalories 10,000 Solid Fuels-' In tonnes of coal 1.5 x10" In tonnes of lignite 3 x 106 Natural Casb In cubic meters 1.111 x 10" In cubic feet 39.2x10"

“ Calorific values of coal and lignite, as produced. ь 1 cubic foot = 1,000 Btu: 1 cubic meter = 9.000 Kcal.

TABLE A.7

Natural Gas/LNG/LPG

 Natural Gas LNG LPG (One billion cubic meters equals approximately 35.3 x 10’ cubic feet) (One million tonnes equals approximately 0.05 TCF [gas]) (One million tonnes equals approximately 11.8 x 10b barrels of LPG) 0.89 x 106 tonnes of crude oi 1 1.23 x 106 tonnes of crude oil 1.1 x 106 tonnes of crude oil 0.8 x 106 tonnes of LPG 1.1 x 106 tonnes of LPG 1.25 x 10“ cubic meters (gas) 0.725 x 1011 tonnes of LNG 1.4x10“ cubic meters (gas) 0.91 x 106 tonnes of LNG 1.35 x 106 tonnes of coal 1.9x10(’ tonnes of coal 1.7 x 106 tonnes of coal 36 x 1012 British Thermal Units (Btu) 52 x 1012 Btu 47 x 1012 Btu 38 x 1015 joules (38 PJ) 55 P) 50 P)

Notes: Tonnes, metric tons; TCF. trillion cubic feet; Mtoe. million tonnes crude oil equivalent; Mtpa. million tonnes per annum; 1 trillion. I million million (1012); 1 billion. 1 thousand million (IO’'); mmscfd, million cubic feet per day; mmbtu, million British Thermal Units; PJ. petajoules (1015 joules).