Proposed IME conceptual model

A conceptual framework, also referred to as a research framework (Frankel & Gage, 2007), presents the relationships between relevant factors that may have an impact on the achievement of goals and objectives. Frankel and Gage (2007) describe a conceptual framework as useful for identifying and demonstrating the factors and relationships that influence the outcome of a project. Ogolla and Moronge (2016) also defined a conceptual framework as a virtual or written product that describes, either graphically or in description form, the main elements, the key factors, concepts or variables and the presumed relationships that exist among them.

The proposed conceptual framework therefore presents the degree of influence and relationship that exists between factors, i.e. variables which will result in a desirable outcome or impact. The variables defined here represent the independent and dependent variable. The independent variable influences and determines the effect of dependent variables, namely stakeholder involvement, budgetary

Conceptual IME model for construction 77 allocation, political influence, technical capacity and training, and change management and organizational learning. The dependent variable is that factor which is observed and measured to determine the effect of the independent variable. The integrated conceptual framework below is therefore proposed to ensure effective M&E in construction project delivery.

Theoretical underpinning of the conceptual model

This section of the theoretical framework focuses on the significant reasons underlying the theory chosen for the study. While the works on M&E have not generated consensus on a single theory to underpin effective M&E implementation, the programme theory and the theory of change summarize the essential variables needed for effective M&E; hence, they both merit as justifiable theories to underpin the current study. The programme theory evaluates how well a programme or project is designed to achieve its intended outcomes. This helps put an emphasis on areas that need critical attention for effective M&E. Similarly, for M&E to be effectively implemented, an understanding of what needs to be monitored and evaluated is a critical variable that demands attention. This will therefore require the development of the capacities of M&E staff and teams of an organization through training to fulfil the set goals of the project. The theory of change rightly described the capacity development of M&E teams as articulating the underlying expectation of the M&E process. Another critical matter needing urgent attention for effective M&E is to ensure accountability of the M&E process. Also, a key aspect of the theory of change is the opportunity for organizations to communicate selected changes in processes to partners. Taplin, Clark, Collins and Colby (2013) informed that the theory of change drives communication through the outcome pathways and narrative to stakeholders and builds core capacities for M&E. The combined theories underscore the variables’ stakeholder involvement, budgetary allocation, technical capacity and training, M&E communication and leadership conceived for the development of an IME model for construction project delivery in Ghana.

Structural components and specification of the conceptual IME model

This book conceptualizes IME model for construction project delivery founded on the relationship between the exogenous variables described above and the other causal factors which connect both the objective and the subjective measurements. The variables were identified from the review of the existing literature and confirmed through a Delphi study. This brought to light critical determinants of the factors that ensure effective M&E of construction project delivery. The M&E of construction project delivery is influenced by the involvement of stakeholders’ features (SIF), budgetary allocation features (BAF), technical capacity and training features (TC&TF), M&E leadership features (M&ELF) and M&E communication features (M&ECF) as represented in Figure 6.1.

Integrated M&E conceptual model for construction project delivery

Figure 6.1 Integrated M&E conceptual model for construction project delivery.

The 5 primary constructs for the developed conceptual IME model revealed 15 measurement variables for stakeholder involvement features (SIF), 12 meas-urement variables for budgetary allocation features (BAF), and 10 measurement variables for technical capacity and training features (TC&TF). M&E leadership features (M&ELF) had 14 measurement variables while 12 measurement variables were identified for M&E communication features (M&ECF). M&E leadership and communication were the 2 identified knowledge gaps in M&E research, hence their introduction in the IME model to ensure effective M&E of construction project delivery. Table 6.2 below illustrates the measurement variables for each of the five identified latent variables:

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