Bioinspired Nanomaterials for Improving Sensing and Imaging Spectroscopy

Janti Qar,a Alaa A. A. Aljabali,b Tasnim Al-Zanati,c Mazhar S. A1 Zoubi,d Khalid M. Al-Batanyeh,a Poonam Negi,e Gaurav Gupta/ Dinesh M. Pardhi,g Kamal Dua/1 and Murtaza M. Tambuwala1

‘'Department of Biological Sciences, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163, Jordan b Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology,

Faculty of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163, Jordan cHealth Informatics, International Medical Corps, Amman, Jordan d Department of Basic Medical Studies, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163, Jordan e School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan, 173229, India

School of Pharmacy, Suresh Cyan Vihar University, Jagatpura, Jaipur 302017, India ^School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland h Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia

'SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical

Science, Ulster University, Coleraine BT52 ISA, UK

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Inorganic nanomaterials with outstanding physical and chemical properties can be used as containers for viral-based nanoparticles. The integration of nanomaterials into the internal cavity of viruses has opened several prospects in the field of biology and medicine for imaging applications. Inorganic nanoparticles (NPs)

Nanomaterials for Spectroscopic Applications Edited by Kaushik Pal

Copyright © 2021 Jenny Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd.

ISBN 978-981-4877-69-5 (Hardcover), 978-1-003-16033-5 (eBook) encapsulation in virus particles can achieve nanoprobe-labeling of viruses and preserve the first exterior surface properties of viral capsid simultaneously. Besides, viruses are distinguished from conventional nanocarriers used for drug delivery by their strong durability, their quickly changed surface, and immense variety in shape and size. Besides, several herbal and bacterial viruses (e.g., phages) were studied and added as drug carriers. The summary of this chapter describes the latest developments and applications of bionanomaterials and the processes of drug developments and drug delivery mechanisms and discusses, along with the identified difficulties and advantages, the present state of bionanomaterials of clinical science. Multifunctional, nanoscaled materials for developments in fields of drug delivery, diagnosis, biosensing, and bioengineering have been reviewed in this relation.


For many reasons, the use of protein cages, plant viruses, and peptides as natural nanoparticles (NPs) is beneficial; they are not infectious and non-toxic to humans and deemed safe for intravital imaging and drug delivery. Protein cages consist of repetitive units that self-assemble to form different geometrical arrangements with three surfaces, the interior, the exterior, and the interunit, resulted from the self-assembling of the protein subunits. In the interior of nanocages, therapeutic and diagnostic molecules can be loaded to enhance the selectivity and the targeting potential. At the same time, their outer surfaces were designed to improve biocompatibility and to target diseased cells [1]. In the design and implementation of synthetic nanocarriers, high toxicity and low drug distribution efficiency were limited. For example, cationic fat, micelle, copolymer block, carbohydrates, dendrimers, inorganic NPs. Natural nanocarriers are ideal solutions because they satisfy biocompatibility, biodegradability, water solubility, and cell toxicity [2]. For example, natural nanostructures contain protein cages, such as viruses, ferritin, heat-shock proteins, vaults, and many more that comprise of a cage-like structural arrangement. Monodispersity of naturally occurring nanosystems is not matched by their synthetic counterparts and may be altered with chemical and genetic approaches to impart the desired functionalities [3]. Protein related biological structures such as viruses, and countless natural inspired nanocarriers, have undergone an extensive analysis over the past two decades as they are essential for the penetration of cell membranes. The viral arrangement best reflects the concepts of the natural assembly of proteins. Structural analyzes of viruses reveal a hollow protein architecture containing a specific number of asymmetric subunits that cover the genome and protect it [4- 14]. Naturally, viral capsids are designed to target host cells and cell entry. Viruses are stable structures that can resist environmental conditions (internal pH, temperatures, lytic enzymes, etc.) but are sensitive enough to detect signaling triggers, thereby releasing nuclear acids within the targeted cells within the targeted cellular microenvironment. They are the means of intermediation between the various chemical environments [2]. However, protein nanocages pose various challenges. Protein-based NPs lack an inherent natural capacity for transmitting therapeutics substances, lack of specificity toward selective cells, and a low efficiency in cellular uptake, short and limited time of circulation, the ability to induce an immune response. They lack tunable and controllable drug release properties [7, 10, 12]. Besides, due to the structure's low stability and cellular permeability, clinical applications of nanocage are minimal [5].

The temporal modulation of functional groups and proteinbinding ligands differentiate between nanocage-based structures and other inorganic NPs. Intelligent nanocarriers with huge potential were created by the combining of bioconjugation and genetic manipulation. For particular covalent chemical modifications, the use of natural amino acids outside or within the capsid is helpful, such as lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and cysteine in protein nanocages [3-6]. Bionanomaterials provide a fascinating platform technology, which has been enriched by detailed structural, functional studies that have established design guidelines for the concept of the most suitable bionano material for various applications. Once aimed at the molecular imaging endothelium, these organic nanomaterials display advantageous marginality properties while preventing immune clearance.

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