Chemical Composition of PA6

PAs are a gathering of thermoplastic polymers containing amide bunches (-CONH) in the fundamental chain. They are famously known as Nylon 6. PA 6 [NH-(CH2)5- CO] is produced using e-caprolactam. It is framed by ring-opening polymerization of e-caprolactam.

The chemical composition of PA6 is shown in Figure 8.1.

Alternative name: poly-e-caproamide (Source:

Trade names: Capron, Ultramid, Nylatron (Source: Class: Aliphatic polyamides (Source:

Chemical composition of PA6. (Paula Yurkanis Bruice, 2006.)

FIGURE 8.1 Chemical composition of PA6. (Paula Yurkanis Bruice, 2006.)

Features of PA6

PA6 strands are intense and have high rigidity, just as versatility and radiance. They are wrinkle confirmation. They are additionally resistant to abrasion and synthetic elements, for instance, acids and solvable bases (Pogacnik and Kalin, 2012). Actual properties of PA6 are satisfactory wear and rough security, low coefficient of grating, high adaptability, high caliber and solidness got together witli extraordinary impact opposition. PA6 is a crystalline thermoplastic that has a low thermal coefficient with linear expansion, has a low coefficient with thermal development, and is exceptionally sensitive to dampness.

PA6 has become a sturdy competitor network, attributable to its great thermal constancy, low dielectric consistent, and superior elasticity (Karsli and Aytac, 2013). The general features of PA6 are given in Table 8.1.

Applications of PA6

PAs are prospective thermoplastic materials used for innumerable purposes, which is inferred from their amazing expansive properties (Li et al., 2013). PA6 is utilized as a string in bristles for toothbrushes, in surgical stitches, and in acoustic and traditional instruments, including guitars, violins, violas, and cellos. It is likewise utilized in the production of an enormous assortment of strings, ropes, fibers, nets, and tire ropes, as well as in hosiery and weaved articles of clothing. In an automobile industry, it is employed in wire and link jacketing, cooling fans, air admission, turbo air channels, valve and engine covers, brake and force guiding repositories, gears for windshield wipers, speedometers, and numerous other automotive parts (Mallick, 2007). It is utilized as gear and bearing materials as a result of their equalization in quality, hardness, and sturdiness and in view' of their great friction characteristics (Bermudez et al., 2001).


8.2.1 Features of PA6



Glass transition temperature


Melting temperature


Density (crystalline) at 25°C

1.23 g/cc

Density (amorphous) at 25°C

1.084 g/cc

Tensile strength

35-230 MPa

Tensile modulus

2.000-3.000 MPa

Flexural strength

40-230 MPa

Flexural modulus

1.800-2.414 MPa

Heat deflection temperature


Surface hardness (shore D)


Source: Data from polyamide-6.


Generally, fillers are considered as added substances, in view of their unfavorable geometrical characteristic and surface area or surface chemical composition. They can just moderately update the modulus of the polymer, while the quality remains unaltered or even decreased. Particulate filler-fortified composites appear to offer various recompenses over neat resin matrices, incorporating heightened stiffness, strength- and dimension-dependent qualities, upgraded durability or impact, improved heat distortion temperature, expanded mechanical damping, diminished penetrability to gases and fluids, adjusted electrical properties, and diminished prices (Nielsen and Landel, 1994; Kumar and Wang, 1997). The particulate filler for polymer composite systems is open in a couple of sizes and shapes, including sphere, cubic, platelet, or some other predictable or uneven geometry (Katz, 1998). Aside from the mechanical properties, various qualities of the material can be improved because of development of the filler (Konieczny et al., 2013).

Materials Used

PA6: Nylon 6 (coded as PA6): pellet size—3 mm, density—1.40 g/cm physical state—white, and appearance—chips. Similarly, zirconium dioxide: particle size—45-55 nm range and density—5.22 g/cm3. PA6 and ZrO, fillers are shown in Figure 8.2.

Preparation of PA6 Test Specimen

The melting temperature of PA6 is 220°C. As a result, PA6 pills are filled in the injection molding equipment and they are directly molded by the injection molding device. At this heat (210°C), PA6 is melted and converted into a molten state. The obtained liquid PA6 is passed from the injection molding device to a preheated die. The preheated die is used to fabricate the specimens as per the following dimensions: 35 mm length and 25 mm diameter tribological experimental tests. The obtained specimens are machined as per ASTM test standards for tribological tests.

PA6 and fillers (a) PA6 (b) ZrO

FIGURE 8.2 PA6 and fillers (a) PA6 (b) ZrO,.

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