Possible Ways for Decreasing the Effect of COVID-19

Sunlight/Ultra Violet Light as a Natural Sanitization

Viral reactions are affected by the time and amount of exposure to sunlight. Light therapy has been found to hold great potential in the healing of wounds and hair regrowth in a few animals. The highest rate of fast viral response observed during the season with full daily sunlight and Vitamin D affects the viral reaction to the therapy based on peginterferon/ribavirin (Hernandez-Alvarez et al. 2017). For years, photobiomodulation therapy has found great potential in repairing worn-out tissues, reducing inflammation and relieving of acute and chronic pain using infrared (IR)/ near-infrared (NIR) radiations; however, it only helps if the correct intensity and the exposure time of laser light are taken care of.

“Photobiomics” may affect a large number of living organisms, referring to the cumulative effects on metabolism, cytokines, transcription factors, microbiomes, and co-ordination factors of photobiomodulation (Liebert et al. 2019). However, studies show that ultraviolet (UV) radiation sensitivity can inhibit immunity from cell regulation and can thus adversely affect virus infections (Norval 2006). Far-UVC (Ultraviolet C) has successfully inactivated aerosol viruses with an amazingly low dose of over 95% of the H1N1 aerosolized influenza virus, which allows the dissemination of transmitted infectious diseases safe, stable, and cost-effective (Welch et al. 2018). Vacuum-UV light is an essential method for disinfecting microorganisms in the environment (Szeto et al. 2020). UV light is beneficial for lessening pathogenic viruses on fruit and vegetables without making any visible changes (Fino and Kniel 2008). In the present scenario when COVID-19 pandemic is at an alarming rate, scientists are trying to study ultraviolet germicidal radiation for the detection of virus in public places such as schools and restaurants and use the UV light for the disinfection of these contaminated public places to stop further transmission of the virus. These may act as a useful tool at very low-cost and can be used by supermarket facilities or restaurants where the health-related viral disease is associated with food handling. Hence we assume that frequent exposure to UV and IR/NIR but with specific calculated intensity is required in one or the other way to minimize the severity of COVID-19.

Antiviral Herbs of the Indian Subcontinent

Ayurveda (an Indian traditional system of medicine practiced in the Indian subcontinent) mentions numerous plants of herbal origin which may act effectively (pro- phylactically or treatment) against the symptoms of respiratory tract infections and enhances respiratory health. These symptoms are also expressed in the COVID-19 so these plants may support the restoration of respiratory health. Pippali (Piper longum), Kantkari (Solanum xanthocarpum), Karkatshringi (Pistacia integerrima), Kasmard (Cassia occidentalis), Agastya (Sesbania grandiflora), Shati (Hedychium spicatum), Karchura (Curcuma zedoaria), Pushkarmula (Inula racemosa), Bharangi (Clerodendrum serratum), Dugdhika (Euphorbia thymifolia) are some herbs mentioned in Ayurveda specifically for respiratory ailments. Haritaki (Terminalia che- bula), Amlaki (Emblica officinalis), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Vridhadaru (Argyreia nervosa), Nagbala (Grewia hirsuta) are established herbs for enhancing immunity and can be used on preventive aspect against COVID-19. These herbs need more scientific validation and trials to be used against treatment or in the prevention of COVID-19. Some plants like Neem (Azadirachta indica), Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Karpoora (Cinnamomum cam- phora), Chandana (Santalum album) boiled in water and whole content may be used for bathing purpose and also in home fumigation by controlled burning to generate fumes (Savan and Mohanlal 2019).

Some antiviral and immunomodulatory processes are recognized for their use of food and herbs. The disease is known to have immunomodulatory properties, including Aloe, Angelica gigas, Astragalus membranaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Panax ginseng. It has been shown that antiviral activity against influenza was present in extracts and bioactive compounds from garlic, ginger, Korea’s red ginseng, eucalyptus, tea tree, Tianmingjing, Machixian, fish mint, Chinese cabbage, capes, zhebeimu (Panyod, Ho, and Sheen 2020). A large number of herbal phytoconstituents have been researched widely for its antiviral function. Androgragrapholide (Diterpene lactone) has immuno and anti-inflammatory features (Tan et al. 2017) and dehydroandrographolide succinic acid monodester, which is derived from Andrographispaniculata, and it prevents HIV in vitro (Puri et al. 1993). Allium sativum (garlic)’s biological actions and its organosulfur compounds and allicin are expected to be acted in humans (Ankri and Mirelman 1999; Chang et al. 1991). Punica granatum, Ocimum sanctum, Azadirachta indica, and Carica papaya are to be further studied for potential Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-resistant practices. The plants are chosen based on their conventional prescribed use in the texts of Ayurveda (Weber et al. 1992; Thomson and Ali 2005). Herbs described in the context are abundantly available in the Indian subcontinent and are primarily used against contagious ailments since ancient times in Indian History. These herbs or their photo-constituents may act as a potential source of antivirals.

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