Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Plants


Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants for Salinity and Drought Stress Tolerance: Being Closer to the FieldIntroductionHow Crop Plants Sense the Stress: Signaling and PathwayAbiotic Stress and its Recognition by PlantPlant Response to Drought and Salinity StressDrought Stress and AgricultureNature of Drought and Plant ResponseGenetic Basis of Drought ToleranceSalinity Stress: Complexity and its Impact on Agricultural ProductionEffect of Salinity Stress on Plant CellGeneric Role of K+Transpirational FluxRole of Ca2+ in Relation to Salt StressWater Loss due to Salinity StressMechanisms of Salinity ToleranceDeterminants for Salt ToleranceRational Strategies for Developing Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance in Crop PlantsResource Species Used for the Identification of Abiotic Stress Tolerant GenesSaccharomycescerevisiaeHalophytesGlycophytesGenetic Engineering for Enhancing Drought and Salt Stress ToleranceImproving Response to Drought Stress by Manipulating Single Action GenesSingle Function GenesOsmoprotectantsDetoxifying GenesLate Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Proteins Coding GenesGenes for Ionic BalanceDecreasing Root to Shoot Translocation of Na+Targetting Pathways: Manipulating Regulatory GenesRole of Transcription Factors in the Activation of Stress Responsive GenesRole of Helicases inImparting Tolerance to Abiotic StressSignal Transduction GenesTargeting Pathways: Tandem Expression of GenesModifying Function: Engineering C4Photosynthetic Pathway into C3 CropsEpigenetic and Post-Transcriptional ControlChoice of Promoters: When and How Much to ExpressApplications of Chloroplast Engineering for Abiotic Stress TolerenceMeans of Stress Impositions, Growth Conditions, and EvaluationsConclusion and Future PerspectivesReferencesBiotechnological Approaches for the Development of Heat Stress Tolerance in Crop PlantsHeat StressEffects of Heat (HT- induced) Stress on Crop PlantsMorphological, Anatomical and Phenological EffectsMorphological EffectsAnatomical EffectsPhenological EffectsPhysiological EffectsWater RelationsPhotosynthesisYieldEffects on Reproduction and DevelopmentHow Plants Respond to the Heat StressMechanism of ToleranceAvoidance MechanismHeat stress and BiotechnologyMarker Assisted Selection and QTL Mapping for Heat Stress ToleranceGenetic Engineering and Transgenic Approaches for Thermo Tolerance“Omics” ApproachesConclusion and Future PerspectivesReferencesHeat Shock Proteins: Role and Mechanism of ActionIntroductionHeat StressHeat Shock ProteinsThermal Stability of HSPsClassification of Heat Shock ProteinsRole of Different HSPsHSPs/Chaperones NetworkGenetically Modified Plants for Heart Stress ToleranceConclusionReferencesReactive Oxygen Species Generation, Antioxidants and Regulating Genes in Crops under Abiotic Stress ConditionsIntroductionReactive Oxygen Species (ROS)Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generation Sites in Plant cellsAntioxidant Defense System in Crop PlantsNon-Enzymatic AntioxidantsEnzymatic AntioxidantsROS Regulation and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Genes in cropsAntioxidant GenesSuperoxide Dismutase (SOD)Catalase (CAT)Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX)Glutathione Reductase (GR)Abscisic acid (ABA)Transcription FactorsSimilar to RCD One (SRO) ProteinsCalcium-Binding Proteins and Calcium TransportersOther Functional ProteinsConclusion and Future PerspectivesReferencesAntioxidant Defense System in Plants against Abiotic StressIntroductionAntioxidant Defense System in PlantsAvoidance of ROS ProductionNon enzymatic ROS ScavengersAscorbic acid (Vitamin C)Glutathione (GSH)α-TocopherolsProlineCarotenoidsEnzymatic ROS ScavengersSuperoxide Dismutase (SOD)CatalaseAscorbate Peroxidase (APX)Glutathione reductaseConclusion and Future PerspectivesReferencesHeat Stress and its Effects on Plant Growth and MetabolismHeat StressResponses of Plants to Heat StressMorpho-phenological Responses to Heat StressPhysiological Responses of Heat StressCanopy TemperatureStomatal ConductanceRelative Water ContentPhotosynthesisTranspirationMembrane ThermostabilityCompatible Osmolytes and HormonesProlineGlycine BetaineGibberellic AcidSalicylic AcidSecondary MetabolitesPolyamines, Polyamine Oxidases and FlavonoidsHeat, Oxidative Stress and AntioxidantsSites of Production of Reactive Oxygen SpeciesDamage Caused Due to ROSAntioxidative Defense System in PlantsNon-Enzymatic AntioxidantsEnzymatic AntioxidantsSuperoxide DismutasePeroxidaseCatalaseAscorbate PeroxidaseGlutathione ReductaseHeat Stress Specific ProteinsHeat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and ChaperonsHeat Sensing and Signaling MoleculesConventional Breeding Approach for Heat ToleranceExpressed Sequence Tags: A Molecular Approach to Study Growth Processes and Stress MechanismsTranscriptome Studies in Plants at Various Developmental StagesTranscriptome Studies under Abiotic StressesExpression Profiling Studies Based on Microarray ExperimentsUse of cDNA MicroarrayLimitations in the Use of MicroarraysConclusion and Future PerspectivesReferencesDefense Mechanism in Plants against Abiotic StressesIntroductionMicroRNAsMitogen Activated Protein KinasesAntioxidants and Reactive Oxygen SpeciesHeat Shock Proteins (HSPs)OsmolytesProlineGama Amino Butyric Acid (AGBA)PolyaminesGlycine BetaineSugarsABA and metabolic adjustmentsReferencesBreeding Approaches to Overcome Abiotic StressIntroductionHistory of Plant Breeding in IndiaBreeding ApproachesConventional Breeding ApproachesDomesticationSelection under DomesticationMass SelectionPure Line SelectionBackcross BreedingHybridizationPolyploidyMutational BreedingUnconventional MethodsMarker Assisted BreedingBiotechnological ApproachesConclusion and Future PerspectivesReferencesMorphological, Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Responses of Plants to Drought StressIntroductionEffects of Drought Stress on Crop PlantsSuccessful Strategies under Drought Stress - Resistance, Acclimatization and PlasticityResponse of Crop Plants to Drought StressPhysiological Implication of DroughtStomatal Behaviour during Drought StressEffect on Pigment Composition and PhotosynthesisEffect on Osmotic AdjustmentThe Molecular Responses Regulated During DroughtABA induces Gene Expression during Water DeficitAcid MetabolismConclusion and Future PerspectivesReferencesStomatal Activities against Abiotic Stress and Selection of Potential Tolerant Horticultural CropsIntroductionStomatal Stress and Effect on the PlantsRate of TranspirationDriving Force and Pathway of TranspirationAnti-TranspirantsReflecting MaterialsWind BreakBreeding TechniqueSelection of Fruits CropsPotential Fruit Crops for Dry land Arid RegionSelection of Vegetable Crop and Importance of Vegetable Crops in Arid RegionOrnamental Trees, Shrubs and Hedges PlantsSuitable Ornamental TreesSuitable Ornamental Shrubs for Arid RegionSuggested Readings
 
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