Potential Fruit Crops for Dry land Arid Region

  • (i) most hardy fruit crop, can withstand drought and salinity and saline water.
  • (ii) Its roots can penetrate through hard pan and can draw moisture from deeper layers of soil.
  • (iii) It is fruit crop sheds leaves with onset of dry and hot weather.
  • (iv) Its flowering and fruiting coincides with maximum moisture availability in soil and harvesting is over before onset of dry and hot.
  • (v) This crop requires little irrigation for establishment and its production will be enhanced if supplementary irrigation is provided.
  • (vi) Alternatively, certain amount of catchment area with slop for collection of runoff water needs to be provided for its successful cultivation.
  • (vii) Leaves xerophytic characteristics and buds are scaly

Date palm: withstand salinity and saline irrigation water, however, it must be gr own where sufficient irrigation can be given and ripening of fruits must complete before onset of monsoon. Alternatively, the rainfall should be very scanty and there should be no humidity build up. Require sufficient heat unit by the end of June and high vapour pressure deficit (25 mb) during fruit development.

Pomegranate: (i) Tolerate salinity and saline irrigation and does well in shallow soil, (ii) Tolerates drought to some extent and fruiting can be tailored during period of maximum soil moisture availability, (iii) It is veiy sensitive to soil and atmosphere moisture fluctuation which result in cracking of fruits and will require supplementary irrigation even in area zones for its economic productivity.

Custard apple: (i) very hardy fruit crop tolerant to drought salinity and saline irrigation water to some extent, (ii) Requires shallow soils, fruiting coincides during maximum moisture availability and harvesting complete before onset of diy hot weather, (iii) It also sheds leaves during hot arid dry summer, (iv) Flowering in June July and harvesting by November -December at optimum environment conditions.

Guava: (i) Tolerate of salinity (ii) flowering fruiting can be regulated during maximum moisture availability (iii) Harvesting is over before onset of diy hot summer (iv) Fruit requires deeper soil and irrigation for establishment and for economic productivity.

Acid Lime: (i) relatively less drought tolerant and requires shallow soils, (ii)

Can withstand salinity and saline irrigation water with salt tolerant rootstock, (iii) Requires irrigation for establishment and economic productivity, (iv) plants can be tailored to flower during monsoon major crop in late winter.

Lehsua: After the crop is over in early summer the tree sheds off leaves. Leaves thick and cuticular. Fruits are used for picking, harvested immature.

Aonla: Great tolerance to salt and alkalinity. Flowering in February -March in spring optimum moisture stage than after its embryo goes to dormancy under hot condition and than in July its start growth under good moisture condition.

Phalsa: Drought hardy. Very short reproduction phase. After harvesting loose folage. Flowering in December -January crop is ready by April.

BaelrDrought and salinity tolerant plant. Flowering coincides with the onset of monsoon and fruits mature before the onset of hot summer.

Wood Apple: Tolerance to drought and salinity. Extensive root system and synchronization of its reproductive phase with high moisture availability.

Jamun: Can stand drought which can be attributed to extensive root system. Flowering in spring find swell of fruits in monsoon.

Karonda: Drought tolerant and its reproductive phase synchronize to the period of moisture abundance.

Fig: Can tolerant salinity and drought. Fruiting can be monitored to synchronized with rainy season only so that crop is harvested in late winter and plants shed off leaves dining summer.

Other fruit plants: Tamarind: deep root system

Kair: Scanty folage, musilagenous in plant parts will hold water

Pilu : deep root system.

Selection of Vegetable Crop and Importance of Vegetable Crops in Arid Region

Selection on the basis of water requirement, deep root system, short duration etc

  • (i) Cucurbits are eminently suitable for diy land because they long tap root system and some of them have got xerophytes habit.
  • (ii) Some of the cucurbits like watermelon have been found growing in dryland of Kalahari desert in South Africa and they have low moisture requirement.
  • (iii) Among cucurbits following are important: Kikoda {Momordica dioica), Gourd (Luffa acantangula), Wwater and musk melons, kachra ect.

Other vegetables: guar, sem, lobia, kliejri pods

Ornamental Trees, Shrubs and Hedges Plants

Selection of plant species that require little management, less water, contrast flowering, drought hardy, salt tolerant and disease free etc.

Suitable Ornamental Trees

  • 1. Bntea monosperma (Dak) 6-5m height salt and drought tolerant leafless tree when flowering.
  • 2. Cassia favanica (punk cassia)5-8m height, drought resistant but susceptible to rot disease.
  • 3. C. nodasa (pink mohar) 5-7m height, slightly drought and disease resistant and slow growing.
  • 4. Callistemon (Bottle brush) 5+6m height moderate drought tolerant and disease resistant.
  • 5. Delonix elata (Safed gulmohar) 8-10m height, highly drought and diseases tolerant.
  • 6. Eucalyptus (Safeda)12-15m height highly drought tolerate disease resistant.
  • 7. Gliricidia maculate 4-6m height, drought hardy leaf less when flowering.
  • 8. Peltophorum teragricanum (pila gulmohar) 10-12 m height quick growing moderately drought resistant.

Suitable Ornamental Shrubs for Arid Region

  • (i) Bauhina alba (kaclmar) 3-4m height variegated, drought and disease resistant.
  • (ii) Bougainvillea spectabelis 4-5m height drought and disease resistant.
  • (iii) Cassia auriculeta-2-2.5m height drought and disease resistant.
  • (iv) Clerodendron aculeatum (Jhumurtta) 1-1.5m height drought disease resistant
  • (v) Duranta plumieri (Jhuimutta) 2-3m height high water requiring
  • (vi) Hemalea and Hibiscus rosa sinensis -1 -2.5 m height drought hardy, root disease susceptible.
  • (vii) Jasminum auriculatum 5-7m height moderate water requirement.
  • (viii) Jasminum grandiflorum (chandni) 5-7m height moderate water requirement
  • (ix) Jasminum similes (pili chameli) 3-4 height moderate water requirement. Suitable hedges for diy land
  • Low height:

Barleria cristata (kanteli)1.5-2.7m height highly drought resistant.

Саппа indica (keli)0.5-0.7m height moderate water requirement

Vinca rosea (sadabahar) 0.4-0.6m height drought and disease resistant

ornamental all the year round.

• Medium height:

Bougainvillea specatabilis (bougianvilla) 1-1.5m height drought and disease resistant.

Cleredendron aculeatum (Jhunnutta)l-1.2m height drought resistant compact thorny.

Cappris deciduas (kair)1.5-2.0m height highly drought resistant suitable for 100-200mm rainfall zone n sandy soil.

Duranta plumerii (Jhurumatta)0.8-1.0 m height more water requirement. Lantana camera 0.8-l.Om height highly drought and resistant plant. Dodonaea viscose (Raellia)l-l,2m height drought tolerant but disease susceptible.

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