Environmental Impacts of Mining: Monitoring, Restoration and Control


Mining and the EnvironmentIntroductionUniqueness of MiningEnvironmental Effects of Surface Coal MiningWater PollutionLand UseSubsidence of Mined LandMining and Its Impacts, an OverviewExplorationDevelopmentActive MiningBeneficiationTailings DisposalEnvironmental and Social ImpactsImpacts on Water ResourcesAcid Mine Drainage and Contaminant LeachingErosion of Soils and Mine Wastes into Surface WatersImpacts of Wet Tailing Impoundments, Waste Rock, Heap Leach, and Dump Leach FacilitiesImpacts of Mine DewateringImpacts of Mining on Air QualityIncidental Release of MercuryImpacts of Mining on Soil QualityImpacts of Mining Projects on WildlifeMining and Human DisplacementImpacts on Public HealthImpacts on Cultural and Aesthetic ResourcesClimate Change ConsiderationsEnvironmental AuditsTypes of Environmental AuditsBibliographySurface Coal Mining with ReclamationINTRODUCTION: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF SURFACE COAL MININGDragline OperationKeycutting and Layered CuttingPanel (Pit) WidthExtended BenchDragline Stripping ProceduresSingle-Seam Stripping with Nonselective Spoil PlacementSingle Machine SubsystemsShallow Overburden, One Lift, One PassBox PitsEnd CutSide CutRehandle (End Cut)Rehandle (Borrow Pit)Moderate Overburden Depth, Single Lift, Single PassModerately Deep Overburden, Two Lifts, One PassDeep Overburden, Split-Bench MiningDeep Overburden, Multiple Lifts, One Pass (the Extended Bench Method)Two-Pass Extended Bench MethodPullback MethodTerrace MiningTandem Machine SystemsTandem Dozer/Dragline StrippingSingle-Seam Stripping with Selective Spoil PlacementModerate Overburden Depth, One Lift, Single PassModerate Overburden Depth, Two Lifts, One PassDeep Overburden, Two Lifts, One Pass (The Extended Bench Procedure)Multiple-Seam Stripping with DraglinesSingle Dragline, Two-Seams, Nonselective Spoil PlacementModerate Overburden and Interburden DepthsThe Extended Bench Method for Two SeamsThe One-Pass Extended Bench Method for Two-Seam StrippingThe Two-Pass Spoil Side MethodElevated Bench MethodTandem Machine, Two-Seam Condition, Nonselective Spoil PlacementThe Tandem Shovel-Dragline SystemDozer-Dragline SystemTandem Machine-Multiple DraglineSelective Spoil Placement in Two-Seam ConditionStripping of Unstable Overburden MaterialMultiple-Seam SystemsHorseshoe Mining SequenceSteep Slope Mining SystemsGeneral Sequence of Mining and Reclamation OperationsOne-Cut, Single-Seam Conventional Contour MiningOther Conventional Contour Mining SituationsSingle-Cut Haulback Mining of Single SeamsBibliographyReclamation and Revegetation of Mined LandIntroductionReclamation of Surface Mined Land in AustraliaMaterial CharacterizationLandform DesignUse of TopsoilReclamation ProceduresRevegetation MethodsTree PlantingPasture ManagementRevegetation of a Surface Mined Land in MontanaFactors Affecting Natural Revegetation of Coal Mine Spoil Banks in OhioVegetation Development on Old and Abandoned Lead and Zinc Mine WastesRevegetation at the Usibelli Coal Mine, AlaskaBibliographyThe Acid Mine Drainage Problem from Coal MinesIntroductionChemistry of FormationThe Role of BacteriaConventional Neutralization Process Using LimeHigh-Density Sludge ProcessOther Treatment ProcessesChemical TreatmentLimeLimestoneCaustic SodaIron OxidationAeration SystemsBiological OxidationOxidation RateSludge Dewatering and DisposalReverse OsmosisModified Desal ProcessTwo-Resin ProcessChemical SofteningLime-Soda ProcessAlumina-Lime-Soda ProcessBactericides in AMD ControlDetermination of Acid-Generating PotentialBibliographyEnvironmental Impacts of Metal Ore Mining and ProcessingIntroductionCopperLead and ZincArsenicCadmiumEnvironmental ImpactsSoil DegradationAcidification PotentialSoil Degradation by SmeltingAcidificationSoil BiologyTrace MetalsTrace Metal Contamination of Terrestrial PlantsHealth RiskBibliographyAcid Rock Drainage and Metal MigrationIntroductionThe Acid-Generation ProcessSulphide MineralsChemical and Biological Reactions Related to Acid GenerationMetal Leaching and Migration ProcessesPrediction of Acid DrainageStatic TestsKinetic TestsControl of Acid GenerationAvailable Control MeasuresConditioning of Tailings/Waste RockWaste Segregation and BlendingBactericidesBase AdditivesCovers and Seals to Control Acid GenerationSoil CoversSynthetic Membrane CoversWater CoverSaturated Soil or BogSubaqueous DepositionDisposal into Manmade ImpoundmentsDisposal into Flooded Mine WorkingsLake DisposalMarine DisposalMigration Control of ARDDiversion of Surface WaterUnderground MinesOpen PitsWaste Rock Dumps and Spoil PilesTailings DepositsStockpiles and Spent Heap-Leach PilesGroundwater InterceptionUnderground MinesOpen PitsWaste Rock Dumps and Spoil PilesTailings DepositsStockpiles and Spent Heap-Leach PilesCovers and Seals to Control InfiltrationSoil CoversSynthetic CoversAdvantagesDisadvantagesPlacement of CoversWaste Rock and Tailings Placement MethodsMonitoringSpecific Monitoring Programmes for Each Mine ComponentEnvironmental Monitoring of Open PitsEnvironmental Monitoring of Underground WorkingsEnvironmental Monitoring of Waste Rock Dumps, Ore Stockpiles, and Heap-Leach SitesEnvironmental Monitoring of Tailings ImpoundmentsEnvironmental Monitoring of QuarriesEnvironmental Monitoring of Haul RoadsImpact of an Abandoned Mine on Water QualityHydrologic Solution to Acid Mine DrainageWater Resource Problems in a Lead BeltEnvironmental Control Measures After the Closure of a Lead-Zinc Mine in GreenlandMine Environmental RehabilitationDesigning Closure of an Open Pit Mine in CanadaMetal Contents and Treatment of Mine WaterWater Types and ContentsBIBLIOGRAPHYHydrologic ImpactIntroductionHydrologic Impact of Phosphate MiningHydrologic Impact of Phosphate Gypsum Disposal Areas in Central FloridaHydrologic Effect of Subsurface Coal Mining in the Appalachian RegionEffects of Longwall Mining on HydrologyBibliographyErosion Sediment ControlErosion Sediment ControlPreliminary Site EvaluationLand TypeSoil and RockStreamsFloodplainsImpoundmentsGroundwater ConditionsVegetative CoverPlanningPreliminary Site InvestigationPreliminary DesignSubsurface InvestigationsFinal DesignFormulation of an Erosion and Sediment Control PlanOperationMaintenanceSedimentation Control in a Surface Coal MineSurface Mine Sedimentation ControlSurface Mine Drainage ControlBibliographyEnvironmental Impact of Gold MiningIntroductionSmall-Scale Gold Mining in GhanaGold Mining in EcuadorGold Mining in Romania and Environmental DamageBibliographyBlastingIntroductionBibliographyMining SubsidenceIntroductionSubsidence InvestigationsStructural DamageDamage CriteriaRemedial MeasuresBibliographyPostmining Land UseIntroductionAppalachian Region Case Study2Evaluation of AlternativesEconomic EvaluationEnvironmental EvaluationSocial Impact EvaluationSelected AlternativesMidwest Case StudyEvaluation of AlternativesEconomic EvaluationEnvironmental EvaluationSocial Impact EvaluationSelected AlternativesBibliographyBioremediationIntroductionBiosorptionOxidation-ReductionPrecipitationBiosorption by Immobilized BiomassMethylationPhosphate PrecipationMagnetic SeparationMetal-Binding ProteinsCell-Wall Components and ExpolymersApplicability of Biological TreatmentCurrent Status of Bioremediation TechnologiesMetal Biosorbent MaterialsBioremediation of Mercury SaltsBio reduction of ChromiumMetal Waste Removal in WetlandsBioleachingBio beneficiationVegetative UptakeCyanide DegradationApplicability of Biological TreatmentBiotreatment Process Development for Summitville MineResults and conclusionsHomestake Cyanide Biodegradation ProcessMicrobiologyPlant designWastewater analysisToxicity and Biomass Facility ProgramLoading ratesPlant PerformanceAdvantages and DisadvantagesDisadvantages include:Bacterial Cyanide Detoxification of Gold Heap Leach OperationFeasibility testsBioreactor StudiesBibliographyVegetative Uptake and Use of Metal Tolerant Plants to Reclaim Mining WastesIntroductionMechanisms of Metal AccumulationUses of Metal-Accumulating PlantsMining Waste CharacterizationsPlant Adoptions to Contaminated Soils and WastesOther Soil CharacteristicsClimatic FactorsToxicity ToleranceMeasurement and Detection of Metal ToleranceUse of Metal Tolerant Plants in Mine Waste ReclamationMetal Tolerance in PlantsFactors Determining Plant Distribution on Contaminated Soils Metal Concentrations and TypesEvolution of Metal TolerancePhysiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Metal ToleranceMetals of Class AMetals of Class BorderlineMetals of Class BThe Need for Metals by Tolerant PlantsExternal Tolerance MechanismsMetal Uptake StudiesZincCopperLeadVegetative Stabilization of Mining WastesMetal ToleranceOrganic and Topsoil AmendmentsInert Mineral WastesDirect SeedingTrees and ShrubsWaste RockMaintenance and ManagementRevegetation of Taconite Tailings in MinnesotaSite DescriptionApproachCoarse TailingsFine TailingsWetland CreationCoarse TailingsFine TailingsBibliographyPermit for MiningPermit for MiningPermitting Process in West VirginiaThe Mine Permitting Process in MinnesotaOregon Mineral Land Regulation and ReclamationColorado Mine PermittingCommonwealth of VirginiaBibliographyMonitoring of Mine EnvironmentIntroductionWater Quality MonitoringAir Quality MonitoringVegetation and Soil Quality MonitoringMonitoring Impacts on Wildlife and HabitatMonitoring Impacts on Affected CommunitiesMonitoring of Threats to Public SafetyBibliographyEvaluation of Environmental Impact of Open-Pit Mining, Iran Case studyIntroductionPebble Mine, AlaskaThe Ore BodyFisheriesHuman PopulationsEconomicsPermitsStudiesPossible Mining PlanControversyArguments against the ProposalArguments for the ProposalBibliography
 
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