Understanding the Universe: The Physics of the Cosmos from Quasars to Quarks

Quasars to QuarksCosmology and Particle PhysicsUnderstanding How the Universe WorksThe Physical WorldThe World of AtomsAtomic ComponentsMolecules and States of MatterThe World in MotionDescribing MotionMotion in a CircleNewton’s Laws of MotionRelativistic MotionThe World of EnergyThe World of LightI The Small-Scale UniverseQuantized EnergyThe Quantum WorldThe Spectral Fingerprint of HydrogenThe Energy of an AtomEnergy Levels and TransitionsThe Energy Levels of the Hydrogen AtomQuantum States and Quantum NumbersEnergy Levels in GeneralQuantum UncertaintyIndeterminacy and ProbabilityModelling AtomsThe Uncertainty PrincipleQuantum TechnologyAtomsAtoms and Ions with One ElectronAtoms and Ions with Two ElectronsAtoms with Three or More ElectronsThe Periodic Table of the ElementsNucleiMass and EnergyAlpha-DecayBeta-DecayGamma-DecayHalf-LifeNuclear FissionNuclear FusionParticlesLeptonsQuarksHigh-Energy ReactionsA Summary of the Universe at Small ScalesII The Large-Scale UniverseObserving the UniverseTelescopesRefracting TelescopesReflecting TelescopesThe Characteristics of Astronomical TelescopesAstronomical DetectorsPhotometrySpectroscopyBeyond the VisibleRadio AstronomyRadio TelescopesRadio InterferometryAstronomy at High EnergiesX-Ray and Gamma-Ray AstronomyX-Ray and Gamma-Ray TelescopesHigh-Energy Photon DetectorsMulti-Messenger AstrophysicsThe Expanding UniverseThe Distances to GalaxiesGeometrical MethodsFlux and LuminosityStandard CandlesThe Apparent Speed of GalaxiesThe Hubble RelationshipExpanding SpaceStrange IdeasThe Age of the UniverseThe Cooling UniverseBlack-Body RadiationThe Cosmic Microwave BackgroundThe Hot Big BangIII Universal ProcessesElectromagnetic InteractionsElectric and Magnetic ForcesElectromagnetic Fields and RadiationQuantum ElectrodynamicsStrong InteractionsQuarks and GluonsQuantum ChromodynamicsWeak InteractionsComparisons between Fundamental InteractionsW and Z BosonsThe Survival of the NeutronGravitational InteractionsOrbits and Kepler’s LawsNewton’s GravityEinstein’s GravityTests of Curved SpacetimeGravitational RadiationQuantum GravityUnified TheoriesElectroweak UnificationGrand UnificationSuperunification: Strings and BranesIV The Universe through TimeThe History of the UniverseTime, Space, Temperature, and EnergyThe Very Early UniverseInflationThe Quark–Lepton EraThe Hadron EraPrimordial NucleosynthesisStructure in the UniverseThe Universe TodayLarge-Scale StructureActive GalaxiesThe Milky Way and Other GalaxiesThe Formation of Stars and PlanetsThe Evolution of StarsLife on the Main SequencePost-Main Sequence EvolutionStellar DeathAccreting Compact Binary StarsThe Solar SystemThe SunTerrestrial Planets and AsteroidsGiant Planets and Their SatellitesThe Outer LimitsExoplanets and How to Find ThemThe Radial Velocity TechniqueThe Transit TechniqueExoplanetary SystemsLife in the UniverseThe Drake EquationThe Fermi ParadoxThe Anthropic PrincipleThe Future of the UniverseThe Geometry of SpaceOpen and Closed UniversesA Clue from SupernovaeAcceleration and DecelerationMatter and Energy in the UniverseThe Fate of the UniverseBorn out of Fire: An Alternative to the Big BangAcknowledgementsAppendix: A Timeline for Understanding the Universe
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