World Bank Emission Standards for Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants in India

WORLD BANK GUIDELINES for proposed emission standards for coal fired Thermal Power Plants in India.

Coal fired Thermal Power Plants

Guidelines for proposed emission standard for TPPs

(1) Particulate matter, (2) Sulphur dioxide, (3) Oxides of Nitrogen.

The existing for emission Standards Particulate matter in India 150 mg/m3 Proposed world Bank For Standard 50 mg/m3 alternatively W.B. Guidelines propose that Particulate removal efficiency should be redesigned for 99.9% 50 mg/m is not achievable and operated atleast at 99.5% efficiency.

Where appropriate space is available improvements in existing ESP is viable options. This includes increasing plate area. Widering plate spacing and providing flue gas conditioning through the addition of moisture. S03 or NH3 and retrofitting technology. Bag filters would the most cost effective solution for stipulated World Bank standard of 50 mg/m3

Sulphur Dioxide SO, WB prescribed Emission standard of 200 mg/m3 for SO, it also stipulates that the maximum permissible emission level would be 0.2 tons per day per MW upto 500 MW and 0.1 tons per day per MW for each additional MW over 500 MW but not more than 500 tonnes per day for any plant.

Indian coal in general have low sulphur content. The typical SO, emission from coal based power plant are estimated to be 1250 mg/m3 therefore CPCB has not yet fixed any emission standards for SO, but has suggested to monitor SO, emission from the stock height plants namely 275 for 500 MW and above, 220 m for 200 MW, 500 MW and for units < 200 MW3 the stack height is governed by the formula H 14 (Q) 0.8 m Level the existing SO, emission in India is not expected to lead to major increase in ambient SO, concentration. At the moment, the typical SO, emission level concentration for TPPS in India are lower than the recommended WB guidelines.

NOx emission standards (as per guidelines of WB)

NOx 750 mg/m3 (365 ppm)

Thermal power plants Coal based

460 mg/m3 (225 ppm)

Thermal power plants Oil based

320 mg/m3 (115 ppm)

Thermal power plants Natural Gas based

CPCB - for existing natural gas and naptha based power plants.

  • (1) Limit for Emission of NOx
  • (a) For existing units 150 ppm (v/v) at 15% excess oxygen
  • (b) For new units with effect from 1.6.1999

Total generation of Gas Turbine Limit for Stack NOx Emission (v/v oxygen).

For new plants (effective 01.01.1998) with a capacity of 400 MW and above based on natural gas and naptha.

NOx - 400 MW and above - 50 and 100 ppm

100-400 MW

75 and 100 ppm

<100 MW

100 ppm

(PI collect as per page 57-58 )

Nox has been recognized as one for the major pollutants of power generation NOx like SO, is responsible for acid rain. NOx also reacts with hydro-carbon present in Urban air to produce toxic pollutants like ground level ozone. At present the emission levels prescribed for NOx in India is even more stringent than the proposed WB guidelines.

Central Pollution Control Board Environmental Standards

Thermal Power Plant: Standards for Liquid Effluent

Source

Parameter

Concentration mg/1 (except f)

Condenser Cooling Water (once through higher cooling higher System)

pH Temperature

6.5 Not more then

Boiler Blow down

Free available Chlorine Suspended solids Oil and grease Copper (Total Iron (Total)

Cooling Tower blow down

Free Available Chlorine Zine Chromium (Total) Phosphate Other corrosion inhibiting Materialon

Limit to be established case basis by case of Union State Boards 6.5

As pond effluent

pH Suspended solids Oil and grease

Limit has been revised, please see new limit at Sr. No. 66C of the document

Thermal Power Plant: Emission Standards

Generation Capacity

Pollutant

Generating capacity 210 MW or more

Particulate mater

Generating capacity less than 210 MW

Particulate mater

* Depending upon the requirement of local situation . such as protected area, the Control Boards and other implementing agencies under the Environment (Protect may prescribe a limit of 150 mg/Nm3, irrespective of generation capacity of the unit

Thermal Power Plants : Stack Heigh/Limits

Generation Capacity

Stack Height (Metres)

500 MW and above

275

200 MW/210 MW and above Less than 200 MW/210 MW

220

H=14 Q°3 where Q is emission rate of S02 in kg/hr, and H is Stack height in metres.

Environmental Standards for Gas /Naptha? Base Power Plants

  • (/) Limit for emission of NOx
  • (a) For existing units 150 ppm (v/v) at 15% excess oxygen.
  • (b) For new units with effect from 1-6-99.

Total generation of gas turbine Limit for Stack NOx emission (v/v oxygen)

  • (a) 400 MW and above
  • (?) 50 ppm for the units burning (//) 100 ppm for the units bum.
  • (b) Lee than 400 MW but upto
  • (?) 75 ppm for the units burning 100 MW (if) 100 ppm for the units bum.
  • (c) Less than 100 MW100 ppm for units burning natural fuel (<7) For the plants burning gas 100 ppm in a conventional boiler.
  • (if) Stack height H in m should be calculated using the formula H = 14 Q°3, where Q S02 in kg/hr, subject to a minimum of 30 mts.
  • (iif) Liquid waste discharge limit.

Parameter

Maximum limit of concentration pH and temperature

pH

6.5-85

Temperature

As applicable for other thermal Power Plant available chlorine

Free available chlorine

0.5

Suspended solids

100.0

Oil and grease

20.0

Parameter

Maximum limit of concentration pH and temperature

Copper (total)

1.0

Iron (total)

1.0

Zine

1.0

Chromium (total)

0.2

Phosphate

5.0

Temperature Limit for Discharge of condenser From Thermal Power Plant

A. New Thermal Power Plants Commissioned After June 1,1999.

New thermal power plants, which will be using water from rivers/lakes/ reservoirs, sr towers irrespective of location and capacity. Thermal power plants which will use sea purposes, the condition below will apply.

B. New Projects in Coastal Areas using Sea Water

The thermal power plants using sea water should adopt suitable system to reduce wat the final discharge point so that the resultant rise in the temperature of receiving water 70C over and above the ambient temperature of the receiving water bodies.

C. Existing Thermal Power Plants.

Rise in temperature of condensor cooling water from inlet to the outlet of condenser : the 10° C.

D. Guidelines for Discharge Point:

  • 1. The discharge point shall preferably by located at the bottom of the water body proper dispersion of thermal discharge.
  • 2. In case of discharge of cooling water into sea, proper marine outfall shall be the prescribed standards.

Table 1.22: Power and coal usage statistics at the thermal power plants in India

Sr.

No

Power Station

Coal Per Unit of Capacity (MW/ Day)

Installed

(MW/Day)

Generation Electricity (kg/ kWh)

1R

Badarpur

705

502

0.81

2R

I.P. Station

277.5

136

0.86

3R

Rajghat

135

62

0.83

4R

Faridabad

165

131

0.97

5R

Panipat

650

362

0.82

35

Trombay

1150

658

0.73

Sr.

No

Power Station

Coal Per Unit of Capacity (MW/ Day)

Installed

(MW/Day)

Generation Electricity (kg/ kWh)

36R

Parli

690

625

0.80

37P

Amarkantak

290

201

0.72

38R

Sanjay Gandhi

840

770

0.72

39 P

Korba li and lii

400

315

0.97

40P

Korba West

840

630

0.68

41P

Korba Stps

2100

2153

0.68

42R

Satpura

1143

845

0.88

43P

Vindhyachal

2260

2204

0.65

44 R

Kothgudem

1170

1004

1.08

45R

Rayalseema

420

432

0.78

46R

Nellore

30

23

1.21

47R

Ramagundam

63

58

0.73

48P

Rgundam(Stps)

2100

2160

0.63

49R

Vijayawada

1260

1281

0.73

501

Ennore

450

157

0.94

511

Mettur

840

860

0.75

52

Neyvelli@

600

550

531

North Madras

630

646

0.76

541

Tuticorin

1050

1070

0.74

55R

Raichur

1260

850

0.76

56R

Barauni

310

40

1.06

57R

Muzaffarpur

220

65

1.09

58R

Patratu

770

274

0.96

59R

Tenughat

420

200

0.87

60P

Kahalgaon

840

745

0.84

61R

Bokaro A and В

805

260

0.8

62R

Chandrapura

750

100

0.79

63

Mejia

630

475

0.70

64 R

Durgapur-Dvc

350

300

0.62

65R

Bandel

530

150

0.59

66R

Calcutta

190

141

0.89

67

New Cossipore

130

50.6

68R

S.Gen Station

135

136

0.62

69R

Durgapur-Dpl

390

93

0.74

70R

Kolaghat

1260

1210

0.73

71

Bakreshwar*

630

383

0.77

72R

Satanldih

480

150

0.6

73R

Titagarh

240

240

0.64

Sr.

No

Power Station

Coal Per Unit of Capacity (MW/ Day)

Installed

(MW/Day)

Generation Electricity (kg/ kWh)

74R

Budgebudge*

500

500

0.77

75P

Farakka

1600

1470

0.83

76P

Talcher-Ntpc

460

390

1.01

77P

Talcher-Spps

1000

490

0.75

78

lb Valley Tps

420

406

0.91

79R

Bongaigaon

240

0

0.66

80

Chandrapura (Assam)

60

7.82

0.66

81

Namrup

30

5.13

0.66

Total

All India

53216

0.73

kg kWh are the average for the Eastern region # kg kWh are the average for the western region @ Lignite is used as the fuel TM Based on monthly average R Rail feed plant

point of discharge may be selected inconsultatic State Authorities/NIO.

3. No cooling water discharge shall be permitted in estuaries or near ecological such a mangroves, coral reefs/spaning and breeding grounds of acquatic flora.

 
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