Steel Rolling: Principle, Process & Application

Roll Pass DesignIntroductionRoll Pass DesignObject of Roll Pass DesignBasic Purpose of Roll Pass DesignCharacteristics of Efficient Roll Pass DesignSpecified Conditions Under Which Roll Pass Design is Based UponConstraints to Efficient Roll Pass DesignCharacteristics of Hot RollingDraft/DraughtElongationSpreadTypes of SpreadComputation of SpreadContact Area, Contact Angle, Angle of Bite and Roll Bite ConditionMethods to Improve Roll Biting ConditionsForward Slip, Neutral Plane and Neutral AngleForward Slip in Groove RollsTensionEnd ThrustMill SpringPassType of PassesClassification of PassesElements of PassesNeutral Line of the PassDiameter of RollsAverage DiameterRedressing Co-efficientRoll CollarsDetermination of Rolling DiameterPitch Line, Line of RollingTop and Bottom Pressure (Over or Under Draught)Distribution of Draught In A PassPrinciple of the Distribution of DraughtMaximum ReductionRoll Pass Design for Non-Uniform DeformationAnalysis of Non-Uniform DeformationComputation of Draught In Non-Uniform DeformationCharacteristics of Rolling in Flanged ShapesDirect and Indirect DraughtEffect of TaperEffect of FrictionSpeed of Rolling in Flange ProfileAsymmetry of Deformation in a Flange PassStages of Rolling in a Flange PassDistribution of Draught Among the Elements of Flanged ProfileFeatures of Deformation in a Closed Web-Cutting PassConsideration for Design of Finishing PassesCo-efficient of ExpansionRolling with Negative AllowanceSpecific Feature of Roll Pass Design of A Continuous MillComputation of Power RequirementRolling LoadPower Requirement and Rolling TorqueFactors Deciding The Size and Type of Main Drive MotorFactors Affecting Rolling LoadMechanical Working and Rolling ProcessIntroductionHot and Cold WorkingTheory of Microscopic PlasticityMethods of Metal WorkingAllotropy of IronIron-Carbon DiagramTransformation in steelTransformation in Eutectoid SteelTransformation in Hypo Eutectoid SteelTransformation in Hyper Eutectoid SteelCritical TemperatureThe Effects of Various Elements on Plastic Properties of SteelThe Effect of Rolling on Grain StructureDefination and Classification of Thermo-Mechanical ProcessingQuenched and Self-Tempered Rebars (Qst)Stages of Quenching and Self-Tempering CycleFirst StageSecond StageThird StageMain Equipments of TMT ProcessDifferent Metal Forming OperationsRollingHistory of RollingWhat is RollingMethods of RollingClassification of ProductsGeneral Purpose Rolled SectionsSpecial Purpose Rolled SectionMain Categorization of Rolled ProductsClassification of Rolling MillsClassification as per Number of RollsClassification as per Nos. of Drives in the MillClassification as per Products RolledClassification As Per LayoutContinuous/Non-continious Rolling MillClassification wrt Direction of RollingSpecial Types MillDouble Duo MillSandzimar Planetary MillDetermination Of Mill SizeWhere Rolls are Individually DrivenWhere Rolls are Driven by Single Motor Through Pinion StandFlat RollingRolls, Roll Cooling and Roll ManagementIntroductionThere are Three Parts in a Roll, NamelyClassification of RollsClassification wrt PurposeClassification wrt Specific DutyRolls QualitiesEffect of Alloying Elements in Iron and Steel RollsEffect of Casting PracticeQuality Classification of RollsCast Iron RollsGrain RollsClear or Definite Chill Rolls (CCCI)Indefinite Chill Cast Iron Roll (ICCI)Spheroidal Graphite Rolls (SGCI)Double Poured or Composite Iron RollsSteel RollsForged Steel RollsCast SteelCementite Carbide Roll (Rings)Sleeve RollSelection of Rolls for different category of Rolling MillsBlooming and Slabbing MillsStructural MillProper Care of RollsCare During DesignProper use During RollingCare of Roll by Mill CrewCare to Avoid Over LoadingOther PrecautionsProper Cooling of RollsMethodology of Wear-OutFactors Affecting Wear-Out of RollsWhat is Proper Roll CoolingConventional Roll CoolingEffective Roll Cooling SystemRoll Cooling ParameterBasic Requirements of Effective Roll Cooling SystemRoll ManagementObjective of Roll ManagementRoll InventoryProper Layout of the ShopInvestigation of Roll FailuresReclamation of RollsAutomatic Submerged Arc WeldingFactors Affecting the Building up of RollPre-heating of RollsPost heating or Stress Relieving of RollsProcess of ArcingWelding MachineWelding HeadFluxesPreparation of the Job for Weld DepositionWelding of RollsDefects of WeldingRoll BearingsOpen Journal BearingRoller BearingEnclosed Oil Film BearingRolling of Blooms and SlabsIntroductionIngotClassification of IngotSelection of Dimensions and Design of IngotMill ProperLayoutRoll StandStand HousingRolls for Primary MillSelection of Rolls for Primary MillBearing for Primary MillTop Roll Adjustment SystemSpindles for Primary MillRoll SpeedMain Drives of MotorRoll Tables, Manupalaters of MillShears for Primary MillScale Disposal for MillComparative Study of Blooming MillsRoll Pass Design for Blooming MillPattern of ReductionArrangement of Grooves in Blooming Mills RollsTypes Of Passes used In Blooming MillsSize and Shape of PassHeight of Pass (H)Width of PassTaperCorner RadiiPass ConvexityRoll CollarsBottom PressureTurning of the WorkpieceRoll Pass Design Data Sheet of Blooming MillsRolling Schemes for Rolling Different Size of Blooms/Beam BlanksPass Design of Blooming MillBarrel or Bullhead PassFirst PassSecond or Finishing PassBeam BlankDefects in Bloom RollingDefects due to RollingDefects due to SteelDefects due to Bad Heating PracticeRolling of BilletsIntroductionTypes of Mill and General LayoutOpen Train Billet MillCross Country Billet MillContinuous Billet MillSpecific Features of Continuous MillAdvantages of Individually Driven Stand Over Group Combined Driven StandPass Design Details of Billet MillDiamond-Diamond SystemDiamond-Square SequenceAdvantages of Diamond-square SystemDisadvantages of Diamond-Square SequenceOval-Square SystemAdvantages of Oval-square SystemDisadvantages of Oval-square SystemSelection of a Pass SequenceComparative Study of Billet MillsLayout of Continuous Billet MillRoll Pass Design of Billet 90 mm × 90 mmDetails Regarding Input Bloom and Finished ProductDetails Regarding MillTolerance of BilletComputation of ReductionRoll Pass Design of Finishing GroupRoll Pass Design of Roughing and Intermediate GroupRolling Scheme of Billet 90 × 90 mm From Bloom 325 × 325 mm with Intermediate Size of 150 × 150 mmDefects in Billet RollingDefects Due to Bad RollingRolling of Rounds and TMTS BarsIntroductionSelection of Rolling SequenceFirst MethodSecond MethodThird MethodFourth MethodFifth and Sixth MethodSeventh, Eighth, Ninth and Tenth SystemRolling Tolerances of Rounds as per BIS SpecificationOn Size of RoundOvality or Out of SquareWeightDesign of PassesDesign of Finishing PassHeight of Finishing PassWidth of PassRoll GapRadius of Finished PassDesign of Pre-finishing Oval PassHeight of OvalWidth/Height Ratio of Oval PassRadius of ovalOuter radius r of Oval PassArea of Oval PassDesign of Strand PassStrand Plug oval/edge OvalStrand SquareStrand RoundDesign of Following Passes in Rolling SequenceRolling Scheme of Round–32 mmRoll Pass Design R-32 mmStand-12 (Finishing Pass)Pass-11 (Pre-finishing Pass)Pass-6 (Rd-32-36 Pass)Pass-4 (Rd-32-36 Pass)Roll Design of Finishing PassRoll Design of Pre-finishing PassRoll Design of Strand PassLayout of Merchant MillRolling of TMT BarsProcess of TMTComparison of Different TMT GradesThe Effect of Carbon Equivalent on WeldabilityRib DesignControl Data for Thermo Mechanically Treated Wire Rods/BarsRoll Pass Design of TMT-32Olling Defects and its SolutionDiagonal DifferenceFinUnder-FilledFish-tailLapWorn out MarkPipe Formation in TMTPass MarkMill Setting of Rounds/TMTSTwistingBending of Bars (Side Ways)Bend up and DownSlipping in StandsRolling SchemePass Positioning and their DimensionsMajor Points during RollingSetting of Roughing groupSetting of the Intermediate GroupSetting of The Finishing GroupSlit Rolling of BarsWhy Slitting is RequiredSections Produced by Slit RollingThe Process of SlittingControl of Loop Heights between Stands 4 and 5 and 5 and 6Method of SlittingSlitting and Slit GuideProblems Faced During Slit Rolling and its SolutionsMill Setting problem during SlittingRib Height below Tolerance on Both the Top and Bottom of The BarRib Height Below Tolerance on Either the Top or Bottom of the BarOval With Unequal Fill Due to Misalignment of the Entry GuideSmall Kinks Every 1 to 1.2 mLapVariations in Filling Between StrandsRolling of Flats and SquaresIntroductionSelection of Rolling Sequence for Rolling FlatsRoll Pass Design for Flat 50 × 12 – 16 mmSelection of Mill, in which section is to be rolledCustomer’s Requirement wrt Specification, Tolerance etc.Rolling Scheme for Flat 50 × 12 & 50 × 16Pass Design of Flat 50 × 12 & 50 × 16 mmDesign of Pre-finishing Pass (Pass-11-Vertical Stand-Edging Pass)Mill Setting and Section ControlInspection and checking of dimensions of flat sectionsDefects and its RectificationsRound Edges (convex)Concave EdgesDishedDished and ConvexedWedgeOpposite Diagonals RoundedRhomboidSticker Mark – Due to Sticking of Metal on the EdgerWear out Mark on Top and Bottom Edges– Due to Worn out Flat Pass or Edger.Lap– due to Fin from edger.Diagonal DifferenceRolling of Spring Steel FlatsGuides used in Flat RollingEntry GuideDelivery GuideRolling of SquaresSelection of Rolling Sequence for Rolling SquareRoll Pass Design of Square–50 mmRolling Scheme for SquareDefects and its RectificationsOverfillUnder FillLapOffsquareRolling of AnglesIntroductionTypes of System used for Angle rollingSelection of Rolling SystemSalient Features of Rolling AngleSelection of Mill SizeDesign of Finishing PassComputation of the Size of BilletCo-efficient of DeformationModern Method of Rolling AnglesRoll Pass Design of Equal AngleSelection of MillCustomer’s Requirement wrt Specification, Tolerance etc.Pass Design of Angle 55 × 55 × 6 mmDesign of Finishing PassComputation of Thickness of other Passes of Angle RollingPre-finishing Pass (Stand -10)STRAND PASS (Stand-09)Intermediate GroupRoughing GroupRolling Computation Sheet for Angle 55 × 55 × 6 mmRoll Pass Design of Unequal AnglesDesign of Finishing PassDetermination of Sizes of other PassesComputation of Prefinishing PassMill Setting of Angle RollingSetting of Roughing and Intermediate StandsSetting of Finishing Stands and Profiles for Angle RollingDefects and its RectificationRolling of ChannelsIntroductionMethods of Pass DesignConventional Method of Rolling ChannelModern Method of rolling ChannelSalient Feature of Channel Pass DesignDraughtingWork FeatureFilletsFalse or Counter FlangeProfile RadiiSpread in Channel RollingPitch Line LocationCondition of Entry of Strip Into PassGuides Used in Channel RollingRoll Pass Design for Channel 100 × 50 mmSelection of MillCustomer’s Requirement wrt Specification, Tolerance etc.Selection of BilletDetermination of Co-efficient of Reduction for the Different Elements of Channel DesignComputation of Elements of Pass DesignDesign of Finishing PassStrand Pass (Pass-9)Pass-6Pass-3Pass-2Stand-1Mill Setting of ChannelDefects of Channels and its RectificationRolling of BeamIntroductionMethods of Beam DesignThe First MethodSecond MethodThird MethodFourth MethodMill LayoutConventional Rail & Structural MillUniversal Rail and Structural MillContinuous Combined Bar and Structural MillSpecial Features of Beam DesignImportant considerations for Roll Pass Design of BeamSelection of Bloom Size and Numbers of PassesAdvantage of using Beam Shaped Bloom/BilletElements of Beam SectionDraughting Strategy for Beam DesignSpreadFlange DesignBuckling of WebFilletsThrustRoll Pass Design of Beam 125 × 70 mmSelection of MillCustomer’s Requirement wrt Specification, Tolerance etc.ISMB–Details of Specification as Per BISDesign of Finishing PassSelection of BilletDetermination of Co-efficient of Reduction for the Different Elements of Beam DesignComputation Sheet for Beam 125 × 70 MMComputation Sheet for FlangeComputation for The WebComputation for Pass height, Pass AreaPass Design of Beam 125 × 70Pass Design of Finishing Stand (12th)Design of Pre-finishing Stand (10th)Design of Strand Pass (9th)Intermediate Group (Stand-8)Intermediate Group (Stand-6)Design of Pass-5Design of Pass-3Design of Pass-2 (“V”Pass)Design of Pass -1Rolling Scheme for Beam 125 × 70Mill Setting of BeamControl of Weight of Beam SectionSpecial Precaution is to be taken during Beam RollingDefects of Beam and its rectificationRolling of RailIntroductionDevelopment TrendsRail Shaping PracticeConventional SystemBasics of Rail DesignSalient Features of Rail Pass DesignDraughtingDesign EfficiencyRoughing Pass DesignCombination RollsProper Pass DistributionSize of BloomRolling TemperatureGeneral ConsiderationMill SettingDiagonal RollingBearing CollarsRoll SpringRoll DiameterConventional Rail and Structural MilLRail SpecificationLayout of Rail and Structural MillDetails of Equipments: Mill and FurnaceDetails of Major Equipments in Finishing AreaWeldingRail TestingRoll Pass Design for RAILRolling Scheme of Roughing lineRolling Scheme of Finishing LinePass Design of Individual Pass in Finishing LineComputation Sheet for Rail DesignGraph for computation of Co-efficient of ReductionUniversal Roll Pass DesignAdvantages of Shaping in Universal PassMill Configuration with Universal Rolling PracticeDefects and Its RectificationsSteel DefectsMill DefectsFinishing DefectsOperation, Safety and Quality ManagementOperation ManagementPrincipal Elements of the Operation ManagementTechnological Instruction on Preparation of Rolls and Rolling in Light Structural MillPrecautions to be Taken During Roll ChangingPoints/areas to be Checked after Roll ChangingStarting the Mill After Major Roll ChangingExamination of the Finished ProductsTechnical and Economical characteristics of Rolled Metal ProductionSafety Management of Rolling MillAccident Prevention Regulations in the Rolled Metal ProductionQuality Management in Rolling MillsQuality concept of ProductsReliability, Availability and Maintainability of ProductsRolled Product Quality ControlQuality Control in the Production of Rolling ProductsRequirement of TMT RollingPackaging of Steel ProductsIntroductionObjectiveConcepts of PackagingRole of PackagingTheoretical Aspects of PackagingApproach to Packaging DesignImportance of Steel Product PackagingAdvantages of Packaging of Steel ProductsPackaging of Long ProductsPilingBundlingBindingEnergy Efficient Practices and TechnologiesIntroductionRole of Reheating FurnaceType of FurnacePurpose of Heating Metal for RollingProblem Associated with HeatingOperational Energy Efficient Improvement Practices in Furnace and MillOptimal Operation of Combustion SystemOptimization of Thermal RegimesFurnace Pressure RegimesHot Charging of MaterialFurnace ProductivityHearth CoverageUse of Coil BoxUnfired Preheat ZoneRecovery of Waste EnergyStack EfficiencyThermal Cover of Roll Table in the MillComputer/combustion Control ModelDischarge TemperatureUsing Higher Mill SpeedUsing Bigger Diameter RollRunning Mill ConceptEstablishing Communication System Between Furnace and Mill ProperIdle Running of the MillAutomatic Stoppage of Mill Drives/Roll TablesUse of VVVF Drives with Air Blowers and AuxiliariesUse of Energy Efficient Operating TechnologiesImprovement in The Rolling of Rebar TechnologyReheatingLow Temperature RollingIncreased CapacityDimensional TolerancesEndless Welding and Rolling (EWR)Improved Mill UtilizationSize-free RollingThermo-Mechanical Treatment (TMT) ProcessRecent Developments in Production of StructuralsSize-Free Rolling of H-shapesQuenching and Self Tempering (QST) Process for Structural SteelEndless Welding and Rolling (EWR) for Structural SteelHigh Precision Rolling (HPR)In-line Head Hardening of RailsVanadium Steels
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