Biovalorisation of Winery Wastes

Konstantinos V. Kotsanopoulos1', Ramesh C. Ray: and Sudlianshu S. Behera23

  • 1 School of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agriculture Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, University of Thessaly, Fytokou Str., Nea Ionia Magnessias, 38446 Volos, Hellas, Greece
  • 2 Centre of Food and Environment Studies, 1071/17 Jagamohan Nagar, PO: Khandagiri, Bhubaneswar - 751030, Odisha, India
  • 3 Department of Fisheries and Animal Resource Development, Government of Odisha, India
  • 1. Introduction

Wine is primarily produced by fermentation of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) juice. Recently, fruits such as mango, pine apple, avocado, litchi and many other tropical as well as temperate fruits are processed for winemaking. Winemaking industries generate huge amounts of different types of residues/wastes derived from the de-stemmed grapes, sediments obtained during clarification, bagasse from pressing, lees, exhausted yeast and loaded wastewater which are obtained after different decanting steps (Lin et ah, 2014; Barba etal., 2016; Devesa-Rey et al., 2011) (Fig. 1). Jozinovic etal. (2014) reported that the major residues from winemaking are organic wastes (grape pomace, seeds, pulp and skins, grape stems and grape leaves), wastewater, emission of greenhouse gases (C02, volatile organic compounds, etc.) and inorganic wastes (diatomaceous earth, bentonite clay and perlite). Sometimes environmental-friendly technologies have been proposed for the valorisation of winery waste products. Specifically, winery wastes can be an alternative source of added value products (e.g. polyphenols, bioethanol, lactic acid, tartaric acid, enzymes, etc.) and are considered safer in comparison to synthetic counterparts (i.e. fertilisers, synthetic antioxidants, etc.) (Arvanitoyannis et ah, 2006). According to Cuervas-mons et al. (2013), world wine industry transforms 10-25 per cent of raw grapes into residues, mainly represented by grape marc, lees, seeds and stems. These by-products are a rich source of polyphenols and can therefore, be used to produce new added-value products. Grape pomace has a vast array of applications in food industries, such as, [1]

Different types of wastes generated during winemaking

Figure 1. Different types of wastes generated during winemaking

Abbreviations

BOD: Biological oxygen demand

COD: Chemical Oxygen demand

DPPH: a, a-diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl

DSC: Differential scanning calorimetry

ESI-MS/MS: Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry

FTIR: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

GC-MS: Gas chromatography mass spectrometryW

HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography

NMR Spectroscopy: Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

XRD: X-ray diffraction

functional foods (dietary fibre + polyphenols), food processing (biosurfactants), cosmetics (grape seeds oil + antioxidants), biomedical/pharmaceutical (pullulan) and food supplements (grape pomace powder). To date, there has been no assessment of the market potential of grape pomace by-products (Dwyer et al., 2014; Rondeau et al., 2013). A sustainable winemaking process consists of maximising resources and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions that are generated during the production process (Castillo- Vergara et al., 2015). On a global scale, the wine sector is responsible for around 0.3 per cent of annual greenhouse gas emissions (Amienyo et al., 2014). In this regards, the problem of food and winery wastage has attracted considerable public attention in recent years and was considered by the European Parliament on January 19th, 2012 (2011/2175(INI)) (Barba et al., 2016). The recovery and use of wine processing by-products are thus, practical procedures that can lessen the waste disposal problems while increasing the limited resources (Barba et al., 2016). All these aspects have found a place in this chapter.

2. Wine and Vine By-products

Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes are produced annually, with 15 per cent of these being used in the winemaking industry (Teixeira et al., 2014). This commercial activity generates huge amounts of solid waste (up to 30 per cent w/w). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids such as stems, skins, seeds, lees and waste water (Teixeira et al., 2014). The following sections review the different by-products of the wine-industry, the technologies used for the valorisation process, the main substrates that can be extracted and used and the added-value products that can be obtained. A list of the main wine and vine waste products, the resulting added-value products and the operative conditions of the relevant process are given in Table 1.

2.1. Grape Stalks and Vine Primings

Grape stalks can be an interesting source of solid biomass to cover energy needs. In comparison to other agricultural residues (e.g. wheat straw or corncobs), grape stalks contain relatively low levels of ash (2.90 per cent), which is, however, 10 times higher than the level contained in softwoods (e.g. spruce or pine) (Gonzalez-Centeno et ah, 2010; Prozil et ah, 2012). The chemical composition and the structure of macromolecular components of grape stalks from red grape pomaces were evaluated by Prozil et ah (2012). These compounds were mainly composed of cellulose (30.3 per cent), hemicelluloses (21.0 per cent), lignin (17.4 per cent), tannins (15.9 per cent) and proteins (6.1 per cent). Ping et ah (2011) evaluated the composition of grape stalk (i.e. 36 per cent cellulose, 34 per cent lignin, 24 per cent hemicellulose and 6 per cent tannins). The tannins, analysed by using a solution-state 13C NMR were mainly of procyanidin type and the dichloromethane extractives fraction, characterised by GC-MS, was principally composed of fatty acids. Vine shoots are wastes that are produced in quantities of 1.4 and 2.0 tons/ha/year (Sanchez-Gomez et ah, 2016). The vine has been a traditional cultivar in Greece for many years. Every year after February, pruning leads to large quantities of vine prunnings that remain in the field as by-products. The average amount of primings per year reaches ~5 t/ha, which is higher than the average yield of forests in temperate zones (Ntalos and Grigoriou, 2002). Vine-shoots have been shown to possess antioxidant, antifeedant and phytotoxic activities and could therefore be considered for applications in the agri-food industry (Sanchez -Gomez et ah, 2016).

Wine and vine waste

Operative conditions

Value-added products

References

Wine grape marc

SFE; 20-60°C

Polyphenols; 20.2 mg GAE/g DM

atai et al., 2009

Pomace of Palomino fino grapes

SC-CO,, 100,400 bar-, 35-55 °C, 5% (v/v) EtOH

Resveratrol; 0.39-0.68 mg/100 g fresh weight

Casas et al., 2010

Grape pomace extracts

H"ED, 20-60°C, lh. 30% (v/v) EtOH

Polyphenols (2.8 ± 0.4 gGAE/100 gDM)

Boussetta et al., 2011

Grape pomace

3 mL of 20% (w/v) Na:C03; 40°C; 20 min

TPC of RWGP (21.4-26.7 mg GAE/g DM); TPC of WWGP (11.6-15.8 mg GAE/g DM)

Deng et al., 2011

Grape seeds and/or skin

MAE; mixed extractant (EtOH 75%, HC1 1% in water) in an 1:10 (w/v) ratio

TPC, 36.8% (expressed as GAE)

Perez-Serradilla and De Castro. 2011

Grape marcs

2 h of extraction, 75% EtOH liquid mixture at pH 2

Polyphenols

Libran et al., 2013

SdWPP

Metlianol/HCl (97:3) for 24 h

TPC (untreated: 42.72±0.79; UV treated: 38.59±0.67; thermally treated: 41.66±0.34)

Garcia-Lomillo et al., 2014

Grape pomace

Conventional (mechanical stirring, 200 rpm) and acoustic (55±5 kHz. 435±5 W/L); 20-50°C

Polyphenols; 770.9±77.5 mgGAE/100 gDM

Gonzalez-Centeno et al., 2015

Grape skins and defatted seeds

lOMPa, S0-120°C, 2-5 mL/min, 2h

Polyphenols; 124±1 mg/g (grape seeds); 77±3 nrg/g (skins)

Duba et al., 2015

Grape seeds

80 bar. 6kg/h CO, flow rate. 20% co-solvent

>1000 mg catechin/100 g DM) and FII >800 mg catechin/100 g DM

Da Porto and Natolino. 2017

Grape seeds

Temperature 313-333 K. pressure up to 40.0MPa

Linolenic acid (67 %), and oleic acid (20%)

Coellio et al., 2017

Vine pruning

Fluidized bed gasifier. (70 kg/h). and operates at 800°C

Gasification gas (in terms of its CO and CO: contents) raw-material

Brito et al., 2014

Lee. gr ape marc

Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) induced fermentation

Acetic acid

Vilela-Moura et al., 2011

Л'inasses and grape marc

Fermentation with Trichodenna viride

Lactic acid, biosurfactants, xylitol, ethanol and other compounds

Devesa-Rey et al., 2011

Vinasse

Alkali treatment

(8%), microwave power (700 W) 24h fermentation

Lactic acid (17.5 g/L)

Liu et al., 2010

(Contd.)

Wine and vine waste

Operative conditions

Value-added products

References

Lee, grape marc

Yeast (S.cerevisiae and

Candidaparapsilosis) induced fermentation; pH (3.0-5.0); 28-36°C

Animal feed supplement and SCP

Silva etal., 2011

Yinasse

Fermentation; pH5.0, 30°C

Protein rich fungal biomass (45.55% crude protein)

Nitayavardhana & Klrarral, 2010

Yinasse and grape marc

Fermentation with Trichodenna viride WEBL0703 (6.65 x Ю9 CFU/g)

Biocontrol agent

Zhihui etal., 2008

Yinasse

Fermentation (100 mL, 100 rpm and 31 °C for 194 h), xylose (55 g/L)

Tartaric acid and calcium tartrate

Salgado et al., 2010

Grape pomace

SsF (4.5 x 10s spores/g solid substrate); Aspeigillus awamori (0.2 mL),

Exo-PG, xylanase and celhrllase

Diaz etal., 2012

Grape +sugarbeet pomaces

SsF (sugar, 16.5%; pH 4.5; humidity 68%; 10s cells/g), 28°C, 96 h

Bioethanol

Rodriguez et al., 2010

Grape marc

Fermentation with Lactoacillus plantarum

Anti-allergen

Tominaga et al., 2010

Abbreviations:

TPC: Total phenol content; HYED: High-voltage electric discharge; PEF: Pulsed electric fields; US: Ultrasounds; GAE: Gallic acid equivalents; DM: Dry matter; SFE: Supercritical fluid extractions; SC-CO,: Supercritical carbon dioxide; TCC: Total catechin content; SdWPP: Seed wine pomace product; MAE: microwave-assisted extraction; SCP: Single cell protein; SsF: Solid state fermentation; Exo-PG: Exo-polygalacturonase

2.2. Grape Pomace

Grape pomace consists mainly of seeds, peels (skins) and stems and accounts for about 20-25 per cent of the weight of the grape crushed for wine production. Grape seed is rich in extractable phenolic antioxidants, such as phenolic acid, procyanidins, flavonoids and resveratrol, while grape skins contain abundant anthocyanins. The health benefits of grape pomace polyphenols have been the centre of interest of researchers, the food and the nutraceutical industries. In addition to phenolic antioxidants, grape pomace also contains significant amounts of lipid, proteins, non-digestible fibre and minerals (Yu and Ahmedna, 2013). The polyphenol composition of grape pomace has been well characterised and its biological and functional properties are also intensively studied. These properties of polyphenols are linked to chemoprevention, lower risk of cardiovascular disease and other diseases and have been revealed by researchers working over the world. Therefore, grape pomace has a great potential to serve as a source of an ingredient for functional foods (Yu and Ahmedna, 2013). Grape pomace is also a source of antioxidant dietary fibre. Apart from promoting human health, grape pomace as an antioxidant dietary fibre plays an important role as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent, extending the shelf-life of food products. For instance, grape pomace powder has been added into minced fish and chicken breast to delay the lipid oxidation. Also, grape pomace extract exhibited antimicrobial activity when added into beef patties. Tseng and Zhao (2013) investigated the feasibility of fortifying foods (yoghurt and salad dressing) with grape pomace, to enhance their dietaiy fibres and polyphenols content.

2.3. Grape Seeds

Grape seeds (5 per cent of the fruit weight) are another by-product (38-52 per cent of diy matter of pomace) of winemaking (Ovcharova et ah, 2016). These seeds contain lipid, protein, carbohydrates, and 5-8 per cent polyphenols, depending on the variety. Kim et ah (2006) reported that grape seeds have a complex composition containing approximately 40 per cent fibre, 16 per cent oil, 14 per cent and 7 per cent phenols besides sugar, minerals, salts etc. Mironeasa et ah (2010) reported that the grape seeds contain 28 per cent cellulose, 4-6 per cent tannins, 10-25 per cent oil and 2-4 per cent minerals. The most abundant phenolic compounds isolated from grape seeds are catechins, epicatechin, procyanidin and some dimmers and trimers (Shi et ah, 2003). Grape seed extract is a powerful antioxidant that seems to protect the body from premature aging, disease and decay. Scientific studies have shown that the antioxidant power of proanthocyanidins is 20 times greater than that of vitamin E and 50 times greater than that of vitamin C (Shi et ah, 2003). Kim et ah (2006) evaluated the effect of heating (50-200°C for 10-40 min.) on grape seeds and the antioxidant activity of their extracts. Based on the GC-MS analysis, several low-molecular weight phenolic compounds, such as azelaic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid and o-cinnamic acid were formed in the grape seed extracts (Penunalla and Hettiarachchy, 2011). Grape seeds are also a source of beneficial fatty acids and dietaiy fibres. Some unsaturated fatty acids contained in grape seed oil, such as a-linolenic acid (co-3) and '/-linolenic acid (co-6), are considered essential fatty acids because the human body cannot produce them and they therefore need to be taken through the diet (Hussein and Abdrabba, 2015). Consumption of unsaturated fatty acids has been linked to a reduction in the rate of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, hypertension and immune disorders (Hussein and Abdrabba, 2015). A high portion of the composition of grape seeds and peels (about 80 per cent of their diy weight) is composed of dietary fibres, which have been linked to lower risks of heart disease, obesity, diabetes and colon cancer (Hussein and Abdrabba, 2015). Ovcharova et ah (2016) investigated the oil yield (16.63 per cent) obtained from grape seeds. It was proved that a high percentage of the fatty acid composition of the seeds of red grape was polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (55.30 per cent) followed by oleic acid (25.81 per cent), while palmitic acid was the dominant saturated fatty acid (11.87 per cent) (Ovcharova et al., 2016). This material is therefore, a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and antioxidants. For this reason, it is used for the prevention of a variety of diseases, such as thrombosis, cardiovascular diseases, reduction of cholesterol in serum, dilation of blood vessels, cancer reduction and regulation of autonomic nerves (Yi et ah, 2009; Fontana et ah, 2013). The interest in grape seed oil as a functional food product has increased, mainly because of its high levels of hydrophilic constituents, such as phenolic compounds and lipophilic constituents, such as vitamin E, unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols (Karaman et al., 2015). The oil content of grape seeds varies between 8-20 per cent, depending on grape variety and agricultural conditions (Garavaglia et ah, 2016).

2.4. Wine Lees

Lees are the waste generated during the fermentation and aging process of different industrial activities related to alcoholic drinks, such as wine, cider and beer. Wine lees constitute approximately 2-6 per cent of the initial grape used in winemaking. It has been reported that approximately 0.42-1.26 million tons of wine lees are generated annually in Europe. Wine lees are currently used for commercial production of platform chemicals, such as calcium tartarate, ethanol, lactic acid and xylitol (Perez-Bibbins et al., 2015; Dimou et al., 2015; Bordiga et al., 2015). Dimou et al. (2015) demonstrated the development of a novel wine lees-based integrated biorefinery for the production of several added-value products. Wine lees were initially fractionated for the production of antioxidants, tartarate and ethanol and the remaining stream was converted into a fermentation nutrient supplement for poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) production (30.1 g/L), using the strain Cupriavidus necator DSM 7237.

3. Treatment Methods in Volarisation of Added-value Products

Various pre-treatment methods, such as low temperature pyrolysis, enzymatic extraction, mechanical process, etc. are earned out for valorisation of winery wastes.

3.1. Low-temperature Pyrolysis

Biomass pyrolysis is the process of breaking chemical bonds in biomass macromolecules, using heat energy under inert atmosphere and can convert biomass into low-polymerisation products or even small molecular compounds through a series of complex reactions, such as depolymerisation, ring opening and cleavage. Biomass pyrolysis products can be classified into gas, tar and char according to their phases at room temperature. The chemical reactions are extremely complicated during biomass pyrolysis owing to the diverse distribution of biomass components (Betmadji et al., 2013; Wang and Luo, 2017). Dried grape can be converted to carbon products by low-temperature pyrolysis. The calorific value of these products was determined and compared with that of commercial barbeque briquet (Walter and Sherman, 1976). The gioss heat of combustion of grape charcoal briquets was approximately 90 per cent of that of the commercial briquet, while the dried press cake contained approximately 65 per cent. The theimolytic reactions generally augmented the fuel value of the dried press-cakes by 37-45 per cent.

3.2. Enzymatic Extraction

Pectic enzymes can be used for a more efficient extraction of desirable red grape pigments and other compounds which are bound in plant cells (Munoz et al., 2004; Saigal and Ray, 2006). When the enzymatic extraction of anthocyanin pigments from the grape pigments of three varieties of grape from central Chile was considered, it was shown that the best results of extraction of anthocyanins could be obtained with Vinozym EC using skin grape Ribier after two hours of treatment (Munoz et al., 2004). In the study of Rodriguez-Rodriguez et al. (2012), grape pomace derived from winemaking extracted by an enzymatic process and its composition of polyphenols was evaluated by HPLC and ESI-MS/MS. Kaempferol, catechin, quercetin and procyanidins as well as trace levels of resveratrol and traces of gallocatechin and anthocyanidins were detected. The extraction of phenolic compounds from grapes usually involves the use of organic solvents, which implies a health risk as well as a potential environmental contamination potential. Various methods have been designed in order to recover a larger amount of phenolic compounds with minimal use of solvents (Xia et al., 2010). An enzymatic extraction method gives rise to a new water-soluble product from grape pomace; a grape pomace enzymatic extract, which provides a significant amount of phenolic compounds is among the other components (Rodriguez- Rodriguez et al., 2012).

3.3. Mechanical Technologies

Several studies have employed a wide range of mechanical technologies for extracting valuable products (especially antioxidants) from winery by-products. The methodologies used are detailed in these sections here. Monrad et al. (2012) reported that grape pomace contains appreciable amounts of polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins, which can be recovered for use as food supplements. The extraction of these polyphenols from the pomace is usually accomplished at slightly elevated temperatures, frequently employing hydroethanolic solvents. Traditional extraction methods, including liquid-liquid and solid-liquid extraction, can involve long extraction times accompanied by organic solvent uptake into the remaining pomaces. These conditions can produce an extract containing 139 rng/100 g dry weight (DW) of anthocyanins and 2077 mg/100 g DW (dry weight) of procyanidins. Fontana et al. (2013) characterised high contents of phenolics in grape pomaces due to incomplete extraction during the winemaking process. Monrad et al. (2012) reported that due to governmental regulations and the cost involved in using ethanol as a solvent, as well as the loss in polyphenolics due to thermal degradation, improved extraction techniques are required. A semi-continuous extraction apparatus employing only water was developed to maximise the recovery of anthocyanins and procyanidins from red grape pomace. Water was preheated prior to its entry to the extraction cell containing the grape pomace sample, where it was then, allowed to flow continuously through the unheated extraction vessel before its collection at ambient conditions. Extraction variables that impacted the polyphenolic recovery included pomace moisture content (crude or dried), sample mass, water flow rate and extraction temperature.

3.4. Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion is widely used for wastewater treatment, especially in the food industiy (Moletta, 2005). After the anaerobic treatment, there is generally an aerobic post-treatment in order to return the treated water to the environment (Devesa-Rey et al., 2011). Waste waters are typically characterised by exceptionally high levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD), both particulate and soluble, and high biodegradability. Semi-solid wastes, like lees and vinasses are often treated in anaerobic stirred reactors to recover renewable energy (Moletta, 2005). Several technologies are applied for winery wastewater treatment. These technologies employ free cells or floes (anaerobic contact digesters, anaerobic sequencing batch reactors and anaerobic lagoons), anaerobic granules (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket), biofilms on fixed support (anaerobic filter) or on mobile support as with the fluidised bed. Some technologies include two strategies, e.g. a sludge bed with anaerobic filter, as in the hybrid digester (Moletta, 2005). With winery wastewaters (as for vinasses from distilleries) the removal yield of anaerobic digestion is very high (up to 90-95 per cent COD removal). The organic loads are between 5-15 kg COD/'m3 of digester/day. The biogas production is between 400-600 L per kg COD removed with 60- 70 per cent methane content. For anaerobic and aerobic post-treatment of vinasses in the Cognac region, the REVICO Company has reported 99.7 per cent COD removal at a cost of 0.52 Euro/m3 of vinasses (Moletta, 2005). Rodriguez et al. (2007) examined the use of anaerobic batch reactors, treating winery wastewater combined with waste activated sludge in different proportions under mesophilic conditions. It was shown that for anaerobic digestion of winery wastewater alone, the methane production rate was lower than the rates achieved when winery wastewater and waste activated sludge were treated together. A simplified anaerobic model was used to determine the main kinetic parameters, such as the maximum COD reduction rate (qDA) and maximum methane generation rate (kmax). The maximum values of qDA and k^ were 16.50 kg COD/d and 14.34 kg CH4/d, respectively. On a pilot scale, the anaerobic co-digestion of wine lees together with waste activated sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions was tested by Da Ros et al. (2014). Three organic loading rates (OLRs 2.8, 3.3 and 4.5 kg COD/m3 d) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs 21,19 and 16 days) were applied to the reactors in order to evaluate the best operational conditions for the maximisation of the biogas yields. The addition of lee to sludge determined a higher biogas production; the best yield obtained was 0.40 Nm3bl02as/kg CODfed. Recently, the use of solar photo-Fenton oxidation (stimulated solar light) for treating the concentrate with the reverse osmosis process proved to be a successfi.il combined process for the integrated treatment of winery effluents (Lofrano and Meric, 2016).

3.5. Composting

Composting of winery waste is an alternative to the traditional disposal of residues and involves a commitment to reducing the production of waste products (Bertran et al., 2004). Diaz et al. (2002) investigated an incubation process of binary mixture of grape marc/vinasse for an optimum composting process. Mixtures with increasing amounts of vinasse (0-40 per cent) were incubated in a laboratory- scale reactor under aerobic conditions at 55°C for 43 days. The results of the incubation experiment indicated that the composting process of vinasse and grape marc was technically suitable; however, a moderate amount of vinasse (10-20 per cent) would be the best compromise to optimise the process and obtain high quality compost. Composting can also be a successful strategy for sustainable and complete recycling of grape marc. Moldes et al. (2007) reported that the wine industry generates a large amount of wastes, including grape marc and vinification lees. These substances can be used to produce enzymes or other food additives. The mesophilic biodegradation of grape marc (several ratios of skin, seed and stem) during 60 days under microaerobic conditions was studied. The presence of Penicillium spp. was detected at the beginning of composting. Biodegraded grape marc with stem showed the best organic matter properties (C/N ration of 14 and N content of 37 g/kg) and a germination index of 155 per cent for the growth of ray glass seeds. The results suggested that the biodegradable grape marc could be used as a feitiliser, especially for ray grass crops. An experiment was conducted by Carmona et al. (2012) to study the potential of compost derived from de-alcoholised grapevine marc and grape stalk as growing medium components in the plug seedlings production of lettuce, tomato, pepper and melon. The compost was found to be an effective component of a fertiliser that could be used for plug production of vegetable seedlings. Paradelo et al. (2012) prepared five grape marc composts following different procedures (composting and vermicompost at several scales) and tested them as potential components of plant-growth media. The five composts had a high organic matter content (>90 per cent), low electric conductivity (<1 dS/ m) and a pH of 7 to 8. The results showed that four out of the five composts were suitable for promoting plant growth and increasing the productivity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

Zhang and Sun (2016) currently studied the conditions and the efficiency of two-staged composting of green waste derived from sugarcane bagasse (at 0,15, and 25 per cent) and/or exhausted grape marc (at 0,10, and 20 per cent). The combined addition of sugarcane bagasse and exhausted grape marc improved the composting conditions and the quality of the compost product in terms of temperature, water-holding capacity, particle-size distribution, coarseness index, pH, electric conductivity, microbial counts, etc. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with the combined addition of 15 per cent sugarcane bagasse and 20 per cent exhausted grape marc. The two-staged green waste- compost needed only 21 days to mature instead of 90-270 days required for traditional composting.

4. Value-added Products

Turning vinification wastes into valuable products (Fig. 2) is becoming an essential part of good winemaking practices, further reducing concerns of waste disposal and cutting costs for partly imported wine additives (e.g. tartaric acid, ethanol, lactic acid, etc.) (Rivas et al., 2006).

Value-added products obtained from winery wastes

Figure 2. Value-added products obtained from winery wastes

4.1. Tartaric Acid/Calcium Tartarate

Wine waste lees are currently partly exploited for tartaric acid production (Kontogiannopoulos et ah, 2017). Rivas et al. (2006) recovered tartaric acid from distilled vinification lees of white and red winemaking technology and further optimised the process parameters using response surface methodology and Statistica 5.0 software. The sequential treatment of dissolving tartaric acid and the additional calcium tartarate precipitation can be used to recover up to 92.4 per cent of initial tartaric acid concentration. Moreover, the remaining lees can be used as cost-effective nutrients for lactic acid production from trimming vine shoot hydrolysates using Lactobacillus pentosus CECT-4023. In the study of Yalcin et al. (2008), tartaric acid-containing waste samples obtained from the wine- and grape-juice industries were characterised by using DSC, HPLC, FTIR, and XRD. HPLC to determine the tartaric acid content of samples. The decomposition temperatures of waste samples were found to be relatively higher compared with that of pure tartaric acid. This difference in decomposition temperatures was attributed to the presence of potassium tartarate. According to Salgado et al. (2010), vinasses, the main liquid wastes from the distillation process of grape marc and wine lees, are acidic effluents with high organic content, including acids, carbohydrates, phenols and unsaturated compounds with high COD, BOD and solid concentrations. These wastes can be revalued to provide additional benefits when they are employed as feedstock of compounds, including tartaric acid and cost-effective nutrients for elaboration of fermentable broths. Kontogiannopoulos et al. (2016) developed a novel cost-effective and environment-friendly process, using cation exchange resin for recovering tartaric acid and polyphenolic compounds from wine lees. An experimental design was earned out, based on central composite design with Response Surface Methodology to evaluate the effects of process parameters and their interaction in order to determine the optimum conditions. A set of optimum values of the three main variables was determined at pH = 3.0, water dosage 10 ml/g dry lees and resin dosage 3.5 g/g dry lees. Under these optimum conditions, the predicted tartaric acid recovery could be as high as 74.9 per cent. In an another report, Kontogiannopoulos et al. (2017) investigated an integrated environment-friendly process, using mild conditions to recover tartaric acid and simultaneously exploit the total polyphenols content of wine lees. Several ultrafiltration and nano-filtration membranes were assessed in bench-scale filtration tests for their efficiency in separating the two main products (i.e. tartaric acid; 44.2 g/Land total polyphenols; 323.3 mg/L) from the main stream (wine lees).

4.2. Ethanol

The feasibility of fermenting grapes to produce bioethanol fuel in the European Community was assessed in the study of Scrase et al. (1993). The net energy balances, costs and environmental impacts were considered for a range of management scenario. Typical wine-producing vineyards cannot produce ethanol with a positive net energy balance and costs are four to six times as great as those using wheat or sugar beet as raw materials. Wine production in the European Community exceeds demand by 20-40 per cent. Producing ethanol for fuel from surplus wine in the European Community is a drain on energy and financial resources. It is possible to improve the performance of grapes as an energy crop, principally by raising yields. It was also calculated that annual crops, such as wheat and sugar beet, remain preferable to grapes as raw materials. However, the surplus land under grape vines is often steeply sloping and has thin, dry soils, which would be subject to considerable soil erosion if planted with arable crops; it is considered that perennial energy crops are more environmentally acceptable than annual arable crops. Grape pomace was also used as a substrate for the production of ethanol under solid-state fermentation conditions in the study of Hang et al. (1986). The yield of ethanol amounted to greater than 80 per cent of the theoretical value, based on the fermentable sugar consumed. The grape pomace used in this study contained 13.7 per cent sugar as glucose and had a moisture content of 64.4 per cent, while the pH was 3.6. Rodriguez et al. (2010) described the production of ethanol through solid state fermentation, using grape pomace and sugar beet pomaces as substrates. This work reported the use of laboratory-scale solid state fermentation to obtain alcohol from grape pomace and sugar beet pomaces, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. The initial conditions of the culture media were sugar 16.5 per cent (p/p), pH 4.5, and humidity 68 per cent (p/p). The cultures were inoculated with 10s cells/g of pomace and incubated in an anaerobic environment, at 28°C, for 96 hours. Solid state fermentation showed ethanol maximum concentrations at 48 hours and ethanol yield on sugars consumed more than 82 per cent.

4.3. Lactic acid, Phenyl Lactic Acid and Biosurfactant

Trimming of vine shoots and vinasses means agricultural wastes of little use, but have the potential as an alternative cost-effective media for lactic acid and cell-bound biosurfactant production (Rodriguez et al., 2010). Bustos et al. (2004) hydrolysed vine shoots with dilute sulphuric acid (1-5 per cent) in order to obtain sugar solutions suitable as fermentation media. The operational conditions for hydrolysis were selected on the basis of both the generation of hemicellulosic sugars (mainly xylose) and glucose and the concentrations of reaction byproducts (furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural and acetic acid) affecting fermentation. Hemicellulosic hydrolysates were supplemented with nutrients and fermented with Lactobacillus pentosus, without any previous detoxification stage, to produce lactic acid. Under the best operational conditions assayed (3 per cent H2S04 at 15 min.), 21.8 g lactic acid /L was produced (Qp=0.844 g/L/ h, Yps = 0.77 g/g), which represents a theoretical yield of 99.6 per cent. Acetic acid was the primary byproduct formed from xylose, at about 25 per cent of the lactic acid level. Similarly, an effective process for the chemical-biotechnological utilisation of trimming wastes of vines roots was reported in the study of Bustos et al. (2005). Initial treatment with sulphuric acid (prehydrolysis) allowed the solubilisation of hemicelluloses to xylose and glucose-containing liquors (suitable for the production of fermentation media for lactic acid production with Lb. pentosus) and a solid phase containing cellulose and lignin. The solid residues from prehydrolysis were treated with NaOH in order to increase their cellulase digestibility. In the alkaline treatments, the effects of temperature (in the range of 50-130°C), retention time (30-120 min.) and NaOH concentration (4-12wt, per cent of solution) on the composition and susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of solid residues were assessed by means of an experimental plan with factorial structure. The lignin content decreased, whereas the susceptibility towards enzymatic hydrolysis increased with temperature, reaction time and NaOH concentration within the tested range. Using the cellulosic residues under harsher conditions, favourable fermentation kinetics during simultaneous saccharification for lactic acid production earned out by Lactobacillus rhamnosus were observed. Rivera et al. (2007) evaluated the sugar-containing liquors obtained from hydrolysates of distilled grape marc as the media for lactic acid and biosurfactants production. In order to obtain the best operational conditions for hydrolysis, the variables temperature, reaction time and H2S04 concentration were studied, using factorial design. Selected operational conditions were chosen to cany out fennentation by Lb. pentosus. The hydrolysis (30 min.) at 130°C with 3.3 per cent H2S04 was most suitable in order to cany out the fennentation, using non-detoxified hydrolysates and providing the best results in tenns of lactic acid and biosurfactants production. Lactococcus lactis is an interesting microorganism with several industrial applications, particularly in the food industry. As well as being a probiotic species, Lb. lactis produces several metabolites with interesting properties, such as lactic acid and biosurfactants. The potential of Lb. lactis CECT-4434 as a lactic acid and biosurfactant producer was studied. The financial cost of Lb. lactis cultures could be reduced by replacing the MRS (De Man, Rogosa and Shaipe) medium with the use of two waste materials: trimming vine shoots as C source, and 20 g/L distilled wine lees (vinasses) as N, P and micronutrient sources.

From the hemicellulosic fraction, 14.3 g/L lactic acid and 1.7 mg/L surfactin equivalent was achieved after 74 horns (surface tension reduction of 14.4 N/m); meanwhile, a simultaneous saccharification and fennentation process allowed the generation of 10.8 g/L lactic acid and 1.5 mg/L surfactin equivalent after 74 hours, reducing the surface tension by 12.1 units at the end of fennentation (Rodriguez et al., 2010). Co-culture fermentations show advantages for producing food additives from agro-industrial wastes, considering that different specified microbial strains are combined to improve the consumption of mixed sugars obtained by hydrolysis. Rodriguez-Pazo et al. (2013) developed a profitable technology for the use of both hemicellulosic and cellulosic fractions of trimming wastes by co-culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lb. pentosus. Different bioactive compounds, such as lactic acid, phenyl lactic acid and biosurfactants) were analysed in the exhausted culture media. The highest lactic acid and phenyl lactic acid concentrations, 43.0 g/L and 1.58 m/M, respectively, were obtained after 144 horns during the fennentation of hemicellulosic sugars and simultaneous saccharification and fennentation earned out by co-cultures of Lb. plantarum and Lb. pentosus.

4.4. Antioxidants and Pigments

It has been demonstrated that wine and other products derived from grapes have a high antioxidant capability and as a result, they may offer potential health benefits. Solid by-products obtained from the white and red wine industry were subjected to evaluation in the study of Makris et al. (2007) as potential sources of antioxidant phytochemicals on the basis of their content in phenols and in vitro antioxidant activity. The results showed that extracts from grape seeds (either white or red) contain exceptionally high amounts of total polyphenols (10.3-11.1 per cent on dry weight basis), a great part of which is composed of flavanols.

Polyphenols, the well-known naturally occurring antioxidants, are the most abundant secondary metabolites in grape wastes. Casazza et al. (2010) investigated several non-conventional extraction methods vs. classic solid-liquid extraction to obtain phenolic compounds from grape seeds and skins. The several non-conventional extraction methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and high pressure and temperature extraction, were investigated and compared with solid- liquid extraction and extracts were defined on the basis of extraction yield and antioxidant power. Quali- quantitative analyses were performed using colorimetric and HPLC methods. The highest content in total polyphenols, ortho-diphenols and flavonoids, both for seeds and skins, was obtained with a high pressure and temperature extraction method, while the highest antiradical power was determined in seed extracts obtained by using a microwave-assisted extraction (78.6plexttact Hg/DPPH)- In another study, Casazza et al. (2012) investigated a non-conventional extraction technology in which a high-pressure high-temperature reactor was employed to extract polyphenols from grape skins. The extraction time (15-330 min.) and temperature (30-150°C) were selected as independent variables and their effects were studied. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid yields, as well as the antiradical power of the extracts, were analysed. The use of high-pressure high-temperature technology resulted in extracts rich in polyphenols with high antiradical power. The highest total polyphenol (60.7 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent) g/DW) and total flavonoids (15.1 mgCE g/DW) yields were obtained at 150°C for 270 min. and 150°C for 15 min., respectively. Antiradical power values were found between 8.45 and 52.17 plextract ug DPPH. Furthermore, Libran et al. (2013) aimed at determining the best process conditions (treatment time, per cent ethanol, pH of the solvent) for the solid-solid extraction of polyphenols from grape marcs and analysed the effects of these conditions on several extraction yields, namely on total phenolics, flavonoids, phenolic acids and anthocyanins and also on the antioxidant power of the extracts. Among all the polyphenols extracted, anthocyanins were the most abundant, representing over 40 per cent of the total polyphenol content. The best process conditions were obtained after two hours of extraction in a 75 per cent ethanol- liquid mixture at pH 2. In the study of Duba et al. (2015), polyphenols were extracted from grape skins and defatted grape seeds (cultivar: Pinot Nero) under a constant pressure of 10 MPa and a flow rate of 2-5 mL/min and under three operating temperatures, namely, 80, 100 and 120°C. For both skins and defatted seeds, total polyphenol yield significantly increased with temperature: for skin from 44.3±0.4 to 77±3 mg/g, while for defatted seeds from 44±2 to 124±1 mg/g when temperature increased from 80 to 120°C. Gonzalez-Centeno et al. (2015) evaluated the kinetics of both conventional (mechanical stilling, 200 lpm) and acoustic (55±5 kHz, 435±5 W/L) aqueous extraction of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity from grape pomace by-products and modelled them at different extraction temperatures (20, 35 and 50°C). A gradual and significant increase of total phenolic content (770.9±77.5 mg GAE/lOOg DM) and antioxidant capacity (722.4±41.0 mg TE/100 g DM) of the extracts was observed as the temperature increased (maximum at 50°C), and the highest values were reported in the case of the acoustically- assisted extraction. As observed, the acoustic process required less extraction time and lower operating temperatures to obtain extracts with similar phenolic and antioxidant characteristics than those resulting from conventional extraction. More recently, Da Porto and Natolino (2017) used Response Surface Methodology for the optimisation of supercritical extraction of total polyphenols and proanthocyanidins from grape seeds in order to evaluate the effects of pressure, co-solvent percentages and C02 flow rate, through a Box-Behnken design. A two-steps supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was conducted, with the first step using supercritical carbon dioxide to remove the non-polar components from the grape seeds, and the second using supercritical carbon dioxide added with a co-solvent, finally leading to recovery from the defatted grape seeds. The statistically generated optimum conditions to obtain the highest total polyphenols concentration were a pressure of 80 bar, C02 flow rate of 6 kg/h and 20 per cent (w/w) cosolvent. Coelho et al. (2017) studied the supercritical extraction of oil from grape seed samples from a Portuguese industry. The process was carried out at temperatures of 313-333 K, pressures up to 40.0 MPa and different supercritical carbon dioxide flow rates. Higher oil yield was achieved using supercritical extraction (in the range of 12.0-12.7 per cent) as compared to 12.3 per cent obtained by conventional n-hexane extraction. The main fatty acids present in the supercritical carbon dioxide oil extracts were linolenic and oleic acids, with an average percentage of 67 and 20 per cent, respectively.

4.5. Pellets Solid Fuel

Prozil et al. (2014) evaluated pelletised solid fliel from grape stalks and compared it with fliel produced from softwood. It was found that the specific energy consumption for pelletising grape stalks was approximately 25 per cent lower when compared to that of softwood sawdust. The bulk density of the produced grape stalk pellets (670 kg/m3) was similar to that of pellets produced from softwoods (660 kg/m3), whereas the particle density was slightly higher in the case of grape stalks than in the case of softwood pellets (1129 against 1098 kg/m3). The durability of pellets from grape stalks and softwood was practically the same - 95.8 per cent and 95.6 per cent, respectively. The grape stalks showed a higher heating value of 16.7 MJ/kg, which is slightly lower than that obtained for softwood (18.27 MJ/kg).

The wine industiy, an important economic activity in Portugal, particularly in the Alto-Alentejo region, generates large amounts of residues, especially in the pruning of vines. Various technologies, including energy and agricultural applications, have been considered for the economical valorisation of these residues. Brito et al. (2014) assessed the potential use of biomass energy available in the Norte Alentero region and studied the technical feasibility of energy recovery from wastes resulting from the wine industry by using thermal gasification technologies. The study was conducted in a pilot thermal gasification plant and was based on fluidied bed technology, with a processing capacity of 70 kg/h and operating at 800°C. The gasification tests were performed continuously for several days, using the pellets of mixtures with different mass rations of vine pruning and wood pellets, in order to optimise the heat value and the composition of the produced gas and obtained condensate. The thermodynamic model developed in this work seems to perform well as an estimator of the gasification gas composition (in terms of its CO and C02 contents). An increase in the gasification temperature improved the gasification gas Net Heat Value. The study of Benetto et al. (2015) analysed the production chain of grape marc pellets and evaluated the overall environmental performance of the use of grape marc pellets for heat production, also comparing this performance with alternative fossil and renewable energy resources. A Life Cycle Assessment based on primary data from field experiments was used. A sensitivity analysis was carried out concerning the type of fuel used for drying, the methodological approach to solve multifunctionality, as well as the influence of the water content of grape marc. The combustion and drying of pellets were found to be the main contributors to the environmental impacts, although a crucial influence of methodological choices on co-products management was observed.

4.6. Fertilisers

Vinasse is utilised in agriculture as a cheap nutrient source, for ameliorating agents and animal feeds (Vadivel et al., 2014). The optimised dose of vinasse application has significance over soil properties, crop qualities and yield improvements. It also contributes a substantial amount of phosphorous, sulphur, calcium and micronutrients to crops Vadivel et al., 2014).

5. Future Research Focus and Conclusion

The use of trimming waste, grape marc and wine lees for the production of value-added products is a promising method of reducing the total price of biotechnological processes, but is also an environmentally friendlier method of removing these waste products, which may cause damage to the environment. Companies must therefore, invest in new technologies to decrease the impact of agio-industrial residues on the environment and establish new processes that will provide additional sources of income. Another way of valoraising winery waste is by composting, which in most cases generates compost and fertiliser of high agronomic value. Nevertheless, the health benefit of winery waste is currently undervalued and its use is limited to alcohol production by fermentation and distillation as well as to the manufacture of animal feed. Further research and practical experimentation is necessary since, in the case of winery waste, limited studies have been conducted. Moreover, the life cycle analysis regarding full economic costing of the use of wine waste as a resource, is needed.

It appears from this review that bioconversion of winery waste and their products to value-added products are economically viable. Although different applications have been assayed, including the recovery of ethanol by distillation, extraction of polyphenolic compounds or salts, use as compost and fertilisers, use as raw material for L-lactic acid production, or even for the production of biogas, winery waste appears as an undervalued by-product up to now. The currently available results of biotechnological/ treatment techniques considered nowadays for the use of winery waste are a promising alternative that is focusing on the waste remediation and treatment, rather than on resource recovery. However, winery industry by-products, including grape seeds, grape pomace and stems are very rich sources of antioxidant polyphenols compared to other agri-food solid wastes and therefore, their exploitation as a source of added-value products may be more cost-effective and merits a profounder investigation.

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