# Advanced Numerical Modelling of Wave Structure Interactions

Wave Generation and Absorption TechniquesIntroductionReview of wave generation and absorption methodsStatic boundary wave generation and absorption boundary conditionsRelaxation zonesInternal wave makersMoving wavemakers with active absorptionDiscussionReferencesWave Propagation Models for Numerical Wave TanksIntroductionHistorical developmentBEM modelsFEM modelsSpectral modelsFully Lagrangian modelsLagrangian numerical wave modelMathematical formulationNumerical schemeNumerical dispersion relation and dispersion correctionNumerical treatment of breakingNumerical efficiencyModel validationModel application to the evolution of extreme wave groupsModel application to waves on sheared currentsConcluding remarksReferencesWave Breaking and Air EntrainmentIntroductionPhysics of breakingWave breaker typesFlow structureNumerical modelWave breaking of unstable sinusoidal waveInitial configurationSplash-up and large vortical structuresA new type of vortical structures under breaking wavesDiscussion and future workReferencesAir Compressibility and Aeration Effects in Coastal FlowsIntroductionFlow model for dispersed water wavesMathematical modelNumerical MethodTreatment of the advection equationSpatial discretisationThe HLLC Riemann solverTemporal discretisationResultsD problemsFree drop of a water column in a closed tankUnderwater explosion near a planar rigid wallWater entry of a rigid platePlunging wave impact at a vertical wallConclusionsReferencesViolent Wave Impacts and Loadings using the δ-SPH MethodIntroductionGoverning equationsThe δ-SPH schemeModelling solid bodiesThe ghost-fluid methodEvaluation of Forces and Torques through the ghost-fluid methodAlgorithm for fluid-body couplingEnergy balanceApplicationsPrediction of water impactsExtreme loads on a Wave Energy Converter (WEC)ConclusionsReferencesWave and Structure Interaction Porous Coastal StructuresIntroductionLiterature reviewMathematical formulationDefinitionsRANS equationsVolume-Averaged RANS equationsClosureTurbulence modellingDiscussionNumerical modelApplications: Solitary wave impacting into a rubble mound breakwaterNumerical setupNumerical resultsConcluding remarksApplications: Wave and sediment grain interaction by a nonbreaking solitary wave on a steep slopeIntroduction to DEMNumerical setupNumerical resultsConcluding remarksFinal remarksReferencesCFD Modelling of Scour in Flows with Waves and CurrentsIntroductionTypes of sediment transport models in CFDThe scourFOAM modelGoverning equationsNumerical solution techniqueThe solverBoundary and initial conditionsSolution procedureModel applicationsD scour applicationD scour around a complex foundationConclusionsReferencesA Coupling Strategy for Modelling Dynamics of Moored Floating StructuresIntroductionUncoupled numerical modelsFluid dynamicsSolid dynamicsAn overview of fluid-structure coupling schemesMonolithic schemesPartitioned schemesCoupling instabilitiesCoupling strategyFluid-structure couplingFluid-mooring couplingMooring-structure couplingCase studiesValidation of FSI for floating bodiesValidation of mooring modelMoored floating bodies: the OC4-DeepCwind validation caseConclusionsAppendicesA On limitations and way forwardB On software developmentReferencesFuture ProspectsThe lattice Boltzmann methodArbitrary and hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian modelsDirect pressure and pressure-marching methodsMachine learningCoupled modelsReferences