Cooperation Networks and Economic Development: Cuba’s High-Tech Potential

IntroductionResearch design and data collectionOn prediction and testingResearch toolsCase selectionHistorical specificity in case studies in economicsNotesReferencesI Theory and conceptualizationEconomies as networksThe economy as a complex systemInnovation as a relational processThe economy as a purposeful systemThe economy: A system as a wholeThe historical dimension of economic evolutionMeso-economics: Institutions as analytical unitImplication for the analysis of economic growthThe conception of networks at workThe network approachHub dominated networks vs. ideal “random” networksSocial network researchThe notion of centralityNotesReferencesThe state as networkerThe need of a conceptualization of government agencyAnti-interventionist theoriesIndustrial policy as a recurrent themeThe ownership issue: States enterprisesThe usual neglect: Shaper but not selectorMarket/government dichotomyThe state as crucial hub within the complex economic networkThe risk taking function: Standards formally set vs. informally emergedHub diversity and hierarchyDynamically coherent agents (DCA)Dynamic incoherent agents (DIA): The true agents of changeGovernment agency as a DIAReferencesNational systems of innovation: State-based non-firm organizations (NFOs) as integratorsThe origin of growthThe necessity of a systemic approach to innovation: The neo-Schumpeterian approachSystems of innovation as networksDefining NFOsThe national dimension of the systems of innovation: The role of state’s NFOsThe sectoral systems of innovationA network within networks: The theory of the innovative business enterpriseThe concept of organizational integrationSystem integratorsNFOs as locus of organizational integrationOrganizational integration from a network perspectiveNFOs in leading and in catch-up economiesNotesReferencesII Contextualization and analysis of the caseCuban institutions and industrial policy until 1989Political change as institutional changeBefore 1959Brief remarks on Cuban socialismThe beginningSocial progress as a prerequisiteDevelopmental vs. anti-developmental elementsMain institutional changes since 1959Period 1959–1964The National Land Reform InstituteAgrarian reform and diversificationCauses of the failureNationalization and industrializationIncreasing centralizationThe Central Planning BoardPeriod 1964–1975Strategy changeDebate on state enterprise financingRelevance of Guevara’s insightsSugar targetPeriod 1976–1989Soviet-based institutionalizationThe System of Economic Direction and Planning (SDPE)Cuba in the socialist economic worldRectification process 1986–1990New organizational attemptsNotesReferencesCuban industrial policy from 1989 to the presentFirst measures after the collapse of the Soviet UnionReforms aimed to the domestic economyChanges in the labor marketChanges in the agricultural productionReintegration of Cuba in the international economyHolding companiesEnterprise reformForeign partnershipsNatural-resource and service-based export performanceOn natural resources and raw materialsNickel extractionA possible low-cost substitute of the Cuban nickelTourist-services based growthShortcomings of the tourism industry as growth engineProfessional services based growthNotesReferencesThe Cuban biopharmaceutical industry: Case of developmental catch-up1IntroductionThe Cuban biotech industryFrom a health economics perspectiveBiopharmaceutical trade balanceInnovative outcomes of the industryThe international industry: The need for organizational integrationBusiness models of the biopharmaceutical industry: A story of wasteful strategiesNFOs as foundation of the biopharmaceutical industryOrganizational analysis of the Cuban biopharmaceutical industryNFOs in the Cuban biotechCuban biotechnology: A story of functional integrationCross-organizational cooperationThe central organizationsA few words about the Cuban health systemNational Regulatory Agency (CECMED)National Clinical Trials Coordinating Center (CENCEC)Firms as research spin-offsStrategic network organizationsIn-house modularityCenter for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB)Center for NeurosciencesInstitute for Digital Research (ICID)Center for Immunoassay (CIE)National Center for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA)Center for Molecular Immunology (CIM)Finlay InstituteOther research-production organizationsManufacturing companiesHigh value service companiesTrading companiesHolding companiesNotesReferencesConclusionsAnnexesAnnex 2International alliances of Cuban biotechAnnex 3Cuba: Country-based patent poolAnnex 4Network analysis of Cuban biotechA4.1 Research objectiveA4.2 On the network methodStatistical methods and social network methodsA brief definitionA4.3 Network data collectionA4.4 Basic assumptionsA4.5 Organizational integration conceived as centralityA4.6 Core notions of centralityDegree centralityBetweenness centralityCloseness centralityA4.7 Results and discussionA4.7.1 Total Degree centralityA4.7.2 Closeness centralityA4.7.3 Eigenvector centralityA4.7.4 Betweenness centralityA4.7.5 Out-degree centralityA4.7.6 In-degree centralityA4.8 Complementary measuresA4.8.1 Hub and authority centralityA4.8.2 Information centralityA4.8.3 Clique count, clustering coefficient, simmelian tiesClique membership countClustering coefficientSimmelian tiesA4.9 ConclusionAnnex 5
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