Developing mental toughness in young people

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFOREWORD Why the twenty-first century is different and why developing young people to prosper is differentI BACKGROUND What is mental toughness?ControlCommitmentChallengeConfidence (self belief or self-esteem)The four C's modelIntroductionA summary of the four C'sChallengeTHE BROADER PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT OF CHALLENGEAchievement motivationFear of failureCompetitivenessCommitmentTHE BROADER PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT OF COMMITMENTGoals revisitedThe trait of conscientiousnessConfidenceConfidence in abilitiesInterpersonal confidenceTHE BROADER PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT OF CONFIDENCESelf-efficacySelf-esteemOptimismControlEmotional controlLife controlTHE WIDER PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVELearned helplessnessThe power of attributionsMental toughness: its relevance to teachingDealing with stressThe learning environmentChangeResearch using the MTQ48IntroductionThe benefits of mental toughnessBenefits to healthBenefits in educationExplaining the advantagesThe possible biological base of mental toughnessSummaryAssessing mental toughness—MTQ48ReliabilityValidityFace validityContent validityConstruct validityCriterion validitySummaryMTQ48 report types and handling feedbackMTQ48 report typesReportsAssessor report (standard version only)Coaching report (standard version and young person version)Distance travelled report (standard version and young person version)Organisation development report (the group analysis report in the young person option)Handling feedbackThe importance of preparationAn example: using the MTQ48Handling feedback—best practiceHandling feedback with young peopleGeneral structure of any feedback discussionOpening the discussionThe discussionMoving forwardLife controlSummaryMental toughness—its links to current thinkingII APPLIED PERSPECTIVES Evaluation and Return On Investment (ROI)IntroductionMeasurement in context: focusing on mental toughnessThe drive to measureFacing the challenges—putting measurement into practiceAttribution and contributionArticulating return on investment“Good data”: what counts as evidence?Developing your approach: finding what worksEvaluating difference and what makes a differenceConclusionDeveloping mental toughness in young people: coaching as an applied positive psychologyCoaching in educationWhat is coaching?Coaching in education: the evidencePositive psychology, coaching and mental toughnessMental health considerations?Coaching students for mental toughnessTraining students to peer coach for mental toughnessCoaching teachers for mental toughnessThree components of coachingSkills of coachingWay of beingConclusionSocial mobility and managing shiftUnderstanding social mobilityWhat is social mobilityThe roots of social mobilityIdentifying social mobilityEducational attainmentWork and careerManaging transitionsIncreasing social mobility through individual development and opportunity awarenessDeveloping self reliance and resilience in enabling social mobilityThe MTQ48 psychometric measureCommitment and challengeChallengeControl and confidenceEmployability and young peopleWhat is employability?The case for employabilityDeveloping the skills to enhance employability for young peoplePractical applications: young people, teachers, and school leadersYoung people—mental toughness and raising aspirationsSo what about teacher leaders?Parents' role in developing young peopleIntroductionDevelopment of childrenNeeds of childrenChallenges facing young peopleHow can mental toughness help the development of young people?Parent's own mental toughnessConclusionIII APPLIED CASE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CASE STUDIESMental toughness in secondary schoolsIntroductionThe global grit projectResearch at the University of HullFuture research projectsConclusionMental toughness in Higher EducationIntroductionMental toughness and attainmentMental toughness and life satisfactionConclusionsBoosting career decision making and employability through mental toughnessCase studySex gender identity and mental toughnessSex differences in mental toughnessSex vs gender identityExperimental case study on sex differences, gender identity, and mental toughnessProcedureMental toughness: MTQ48 (Clough, Earle & Sewell, 2002)Gender identity: the Children's Sex Role Inventory (CSRI) short formSex differences in mental toughness and gender identityAssociation between gender identity and mental toughnessPredicting sex differences using sex and gender identityConclusionsSport and its role in developing young peopleSport, stress, and copingSport and the four C's of mental toughnessChallengeCommitmentControlConfidenceSummaryPerformance, behaviour, and career aspirations of students in secondary education—mental toughness case studyInitial pilots in KnowsleyWhat we sought to implement, why, and how we went about thisHow we are seeking to embed mental toughness at The Children's SocietyIV DEVELOPING MENTAL TOUGHNESS Can mental toughness be developed in young people?Positive thinkingDeveloping a positive mindsetSelf talkThink three positivesAffirmationsWhat will I do tomorrow?The positiveness huntLooking at heroes/heroinesThe “glad” gameTurning negatives into positivesSearching for the silver lining in setbacks is the optimistic basis for the “glad game.” ReframingThought stopping—physical and mental cuesThe positive thinking (attitude) ladderAnxiety and anxiety controlGoal settingUnderstanding what a goal is and why it's importantSetting achievable goals—SMART(ER) goalsEating the elephant—Dealing with big goals and setting milestonesA psychological perspective on goal settingAttentional controlSo what is attentional control?Why can some maintain attentional control and others struggle?Attentional control and mental toughnessPractice is the keyTools for developing attentional controlMain attentional control techniquesThe number gridStroop testGamesThe stork standWaste paper (zen) basketballConclusionMindfulness for young peopleBenefitsWhat is mindfulness?How does it work?Resilience/mental toughnessMental wellbeingEducationThe mental toughness framework and mindfulnessControlChallengeConfidenceEmotional intelligenceCommitmentIntroduction to mindfulness for young people: the .b programmeActivitiesThe .b programme has been developed by the mindfulness in schools projectWhat young people sayConclusion
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