Solar PV Systems and Applications
The PV module is a rapid technological innovation that will reduce the PV feed-in tariff in future. Photovoltaics is a technology that converts solar energy into electrical energy. International experience has been gained over many years in manufacturing this, resulting in updated Photovoltaic module effectiveness, price reduction, and increase in productivity (Gong & Kulkarni, 2005). The electricity generated is self-consumed up to a certain percentage (Moshovel et al., 2015). If an exceptionally high amount of sun-based electrical energy is generated, it is stored in a battery and could be used in future when it is not covering the electrical capacity.
The photovoltaic systems are divided into four major applications.
Domestic Off-Grid Photovoltaic System
These photovoltaic systems can be used to provide electricity to the houses and villages that are remotely located and not linked to the nationwide network system. These schemes usually deliver power to the equipment that run on low power loads such as lighting and refrigerators. Thousands of PV systems are being installed worldwide to meet the electricity demand of the off-grid community. It is an extensive alternative for extending the electricity distribution in areas that are difficult to access (Mills, 2000; Nkwetta et al., 2010). When the Photovoltaic pattern is active for local utilization of the Photovoltaic units are mounted on rooftop, which reduces the land requirements.
Non-Domestic Off-Grid Photovoltaic System
This is the most appropriate application, especially when electricity is in high demand and PV is cost-competitive in comparison with other electricity-generating sources. These PV systems are in high demand in industries, airports, and other commercial sectors. They provide power for use in low-maintenance systems such as telecommunication, water pumping, and navigation aids.
Grid Connecting Photovoltaic Systems
These photovoltaic systems are connected to the grids and supply power to the building or any other power requirement equipment. This system is integrated with industrial buildings and residential houses. There is no requirement for battery storage as the system is connected to the grid and provide output varying between 1 and 100 kW. When the onsite generation exceeds the demand, the electricity is fed back to the grid (Zahedi, 1997, 2004).
FIGURE 5.10 Conversion techniques of solar batteries (How is Solar Energy Stored in 2019? | EnergySage, 2020).
A grid-linked Photovoltaic system could help in reducing the capital and upkeep price by removing the requirement for battery storage. The grid could be turned to a storage system for a solar photovoltaic system, and this can also be withdrawn when necessary.
Centralized Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems
This system brings an alternative to the conventional power generation process and it strengthens the utility distribution system.
Applications of Solar Energy
Solar systems consist of panels, inverters, the equipment needed to install it on the roof, and the monitor for tracking of electricity generation. Panels gather the solar energy and convert it to electrical energy that passes via an inverter, which then converts it into another form, the kind that we can utilize to power our homes. These batteries store the energy generated via panels for future use. In addition, the battery has its own inverter and offers integrated conversion of energy. The amount of energy stored in the battery will be higher if it has more capacity. Figure 5.10 shows the conversion techniques of solar batteries.
Power production in solar pumping via solar energy is used for irrigation and household purposes. Its importance for aqua pumping is more evident in summer, paralleling the increase in sun-based rays; that is why this technique is more suitable for irrigation. Throughout the period of intemperate climate when the solar radiations are not sufficient to pump the water, pumping is also comparatively lesser then the transpiration loss from the harvests are also lower. Figure 5.11 shows a representation of solar-pumping in household work (Mondal, 2018).
Solar Water Heating
A sun-based water-heater includes a black FPC with the linked metallic tubes following the general route of the solar radiation, as shown in Figure 5.12. The collector has a cover of glass on top and a layer of insulation above it. The metallic tube of the collector is connected via a pipe to an insulating tanker that stores warm water in cloudy conditions. The collector does absorb the rays from the sun and transfers the heating factor to water flowing to the tube, either by gravitational force or via pumping. Hot water is provided to the storage tanker by the linked metallic tube. This system is mainly used in hotels, restaurants, etc. (Mondal, 2018).
FIGURE 5.11 Representation of solar-pumping in household work using solar thermal twin cell cylinder (Solar thermal panels nidirect, 2018).
FIGURE 5.12 Representation of solar water heating in household tanks (Mondal, 2018).