Memristive Behavior: Tool for Fault Detection and Repairing Dye Solar Cells

Manish Bilgaye, M. Gurunadha Babu, and Y. David Solomon Raju

Holy Mary Institute of Technology and Science, Roorkee, India

Adesh Kumar

University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, India

Introduction

Green energy is a synonym for sustainable development of ecology in which all forms of life thrive and evolve. PV basically converts the solar energy into electric energy in the most nonvolatile way as possible and, hence, is very popular as it pertains to a bright future. This chapter presents a brief review' of PV technology and its development. The focus is on DSSC with insights on device physics, photogeneration, charge transportation, and elaboration of behavior of DSSC as a memristor - the fourth fundamental passive component. A brief introduction on memristors is included. Emphasis is on DSSC fault detection, isolation, and working of DSSC in faulty atmosphere using the memristor. A DSSC Spice model is developed, and a scheme for fault detection and repair, sensing operation, к-segment sensing, memristor resetting, and configuration and repair mechanism has been presented, followed by the conclusion and future scope of study.

Green Energy

Yamani Ahmed Zaki, oil minister of Saudi Arabia, has famously quoted “Stone age didn’t end for lack of stone and oil age will end long before the world runs out of oil” [l] after understanding the harm being caused to the environment and by assessing the future of fossil fuels. The rapid growth of population is resulting in increase in energy demand. Also, there is limited capability to supply nonrenewable energy sources, mainly fossil fuels, and it has certain major disadvantages associated with it, such as environmental pollution and risk of climate change. However, there is sufficient coal to last over a century, and gas and oil reserves will last till the end of this century [2], but the demand estimate can be understood by calculating the yearly aggregate consumption of the sources of energy by the population of the world, yielding 113,009 TWh producing 25.606 TWh of electricity in 2017 and 117.837.2 TWh equivalent to 26,700 TWh in 2018 [3]. The contribution of various sources for the year 2018 is summarized in Table 6.1. Green and renewable energy is the energy of the future because it is from flow'-limited naturally replenishing sources, thereby making it virtually inexhaustible over the time scale with a cap on the energy quantity obtainable over equal intervals of time.

TABLE 6.1

Contribution by Various Energy Sources

Sr. No.

Energy Source

Contribution (%)

1

Coal

38

2

Gas

23

3

Hydro and related

19

4

Nuclear

10

5

Solar and related

7

6

Oil and Gas

3

TABLE 6.2

Worldwide PV Data and C02 Reduction for Year 2019 and Estimate for Year 2020

1

Estimate for Year 2019

Worldwide PV installed capacity by the end of 2019 is 627 GW. This corresponds to 3% of world’s electricity generation

2

Eighteen countries have installed 1 GW of PV Nine countries with minimum of 10 GW' PV

3

Solar PV per capita

Germany - 595. Australia - 585, Japan - 497

4

Countries with the highest PV penetration

Honduras - 14.8%, Israel - 8.7%, Germany - 8.6% and India stands at the 8,h position with 7.5% PV penetration.

5

Top PV market

China - 30.1 GW, European Union - 16.0 GW and USA - 13.3 GW

Solar electricity production avoided about 720 Mt of CO, emissions in the year 2019.

6

Capacity addition by the year 2020 end is estimated to 115 GW worldwide

The main renewable and green energy sources are solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower, rain, tides, waves, and biomass. Biomass can be further categorized to wood and discarded wood, waste in the form of municipal solids, biogas and landfill gas, biodiesel, and ethanol [4]. Contribution of solar photovoltaics is summarized in Table 6.2. There are four major areas where renewable energy is steadily replacing conventional sources of energy - heating of hot water and space, generation of electricity, fuels for vehicles, and energy requirements for rural and nonurban areas which are out of the reach of power grids. According to REN21’s 2019 report, renewable energy meted a total of 18.1% of the world’s energy consumption need and 26% of generation of electricity. Important issues like change in the world’s climatic conditions, security in form of easy availability of clean energy, and fiscal benefits are being mitigated and addressed by the massive and swift deposition of highly efficient sources of renewable energy.

 
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