Comparative Study of Existing Systems Based on Technology and Applications

Table 10.1 shows the technological and experimental/commercial comparison based on applications.

Conclusion

Weather and climatic parameter measurement and monitoring is a challenging domain due to the various difficulties in implementation including technology involved, power management, and deployment considerations. Thus, comprehensive comparative data is of immense utility for the selection of appropriate technology and hardware for deployment in different scenarios. Since in this case, there is no one solution that fits all, the data w'ould assist in assessing the cost-to-benefit ratio as well as the decision-making process. On the hardware side, there is a plethora of choices like Arduino, PIC, etc., with either wired or wireless technology. The status of the technology in terms of being an experimental or a fully commercial solution is also listed, which makes it apt for selection in terms of R&D or physical implementation.

(a) Schematic diagram of developed system for performance monitoring of PV system,

FIGURE 10.19 (a) Schematic diagram of developed system for performance monitoring of PV system, (b) Outdoor PV module, (c) Weather monitoring system, (d) Solar irradiation measurement, (e) Experimental setup and data acquisition system [28].

Author's

Name,

Year, [Refs.]

Major Components of Developed System

Controller/

Technology

Parameters for Measurement

Commercial/

Laboratory-

Based

Experimental

Wired/Wire less Performance Data Transmission

Application

Aristizabal et al. [1 ]

  • • Radiation sensor
  • • Ambient temperature
  • • DC Current sensor
  • • Data acquisition board: PCMCIA 6024E

• SCXI System

  • • Solar irradiation
  • • Temperature
  • • DC current

Commercial

Wired

Development of monitoring system for performance monitoring and quality of the electrical power generated by the plant.

Forero et al., 2006. 12]

  • • Temperature sensor
  • • Radiation sensor
  • • Voltage sensor
  • • Current sensor
  • • DAQ board

• PC with Lab-View interface for GUI

  • • Temperature
  • • Radiation
  • • Voltage
  • • Current

Experimental

Wired

Monitoring of solar PV plant is carried out in terms of performance parameters such as voltage and current. The GUI is shown with Lab-View environment.

Mon dal, 2006. [3]

  • • Data logger
  • • Pyranometers
  • • Anemometer
  • • Temperature sensor

• Controller

  • • Solar irradiation
  • • Wind speed
  • • Temperature

Commercial

Wired

System performance, maximum power point tracking, automatic switching off-on, and grid monitoring are investigated

Author's

Name,

Year, [Refs.]

Major Components of Developed System

Controller/

Technology

Parameters for Measurement

Commercial/

Laboratory-

Based

Experimental

Wired/Wire less Performance Data Transmission

Application

Drews, et a]., 2007. [4]

  • • Solar irradiation sensor
  • • Temperature sensor

NA

  • • Solar irradiation
  • • Temperature

Commercial

Wired and satellite-based monitoring

A small grid-connected PV system is developed and smart performance assessment is carried out.

Naeem, eta!.. 2011.

[5]

  • • Temperature sensor
  • • Voltage sensor
  • • Local area network

• Microcontroller: PIC 18

  • • Temperature
  • • Open circuit voltage

Commercial

Web server LAN

The architecture and construction of a simple embedded web server system and its application for monitoring of a PV system

Rashidi, et al., 2011, [6]

  • • Voltage sensor
  • • Current sensor
  • • Microcontroller
  • • LAB-View: Graphical user interface (GUI)
  • • Voltage
  • • Current
  • • Power

Commercial

Zigbee

Wireless monitoring-based system is developed for monitoring of the PV array system.

Krejcar and Mahdal, 2012, [7]

  • • Voltage, sensor
  • • Current sensor
  • • Buck voltage converter
  • • Data logger

NA

Power

Experimental

Wireless module JN5I39

A wireless-based data logger is designed to assess the performance of the designed system

Author's

Name,

Year, [Refs.]

Major Components of Developed System

Controller/

Technology

Parameters for Measurement

Commercial/

Laboratory-

Based

Experimental

Wired/Wire less Performance Data Transmission

Application

Lopez, et al.,2012. [8]

  • • Solar irradiation sensor
  • • Wind speed sensor
  • • Voltage and current sensors
  • • UART: RS-232

• Microcontroller unit (MCU): dsPIC 30F3013

  • • Solar irradiation
  • • Wind speed
  • • Voltage and current of PVA

Commercial

RF transceiver

Metrological parameters and solar PV performance measurement in terms of voltage and current system are investigated.

Arkoub, eta!.. 2013, [9]

  • • Voltmeter
  • • Ammeter
  • • Temperature sensor
  • • Irradiation sensor
  • • Data logger
  • • RS-232 interface to a PC
  • • Lab-VIEW for GUI
  • • Voltage
  • • Current
  • • Temperature
  • • Irradiation

Experimental

Wired (RS-232 interfacing)

A wired experimental system is designed to sense the voltage, current, temperature, and solar irradiation of the PV system performance evaluation. Moreover, a Lab-VIEW software- based tool box is used for the GUI of proposed system.

Author's

Name,

Year, [Refs.]

Major Components of Developed System

Controller/

Technology

Parameters for Measurement

Commercial/

Laboratory-

Based

Experimental

Wired/Wire less Performance Data Transmission

Application

Papageorgas, 2013.110]

  • • Voltage and current sensor
  • • Temperature sensor
  • • Humidity sensor: SHTII

• Arduino board

  • • Voltage and current
  • • Temperature
  • • Humidity

Laboratory

scale

Zigbee

A laboratory-based hardware system is developed to monitor the short-circuit and open-circuit voltages. Moreover, temperature and humidity are also monitored.

Dyreson, et al., 2014,

nn

  • • Irradiation sensor (45 no.): LI-COR
  • • Data logger: 2 GB

Microcontroller

Solar irradiation

Commercial

Wired

The irregular behavior of solar irradiation causes the performance reduction of solar PV system; thus, 45 irradiation sensors are located to identify the variation in solar irradiation.

Author's

Name,

Year, [Refs.]

Major Components of Developed System

Controller/

Technology

Parameters for Measurement

Commercial/

Laboratory-

Based

Experimental

Wired/Wire less Performance Data Transmission

Application

Fuentes, et a!.. 2014, [12]

  • • Temperature sensor
  • • Irradiance sensor
  • • Data logger: Agilent34970A
  • • Real time clock

Arduino

  • • Temperature
  • • Solar irradiance

Experimental

Wired

A low-cost solar PV perfonnance monitoring system is designed and a data logger assists the proposed system to store the measured data in terms of voltage, current, etc.

Han,

eta!., 2014, [I3]

  • • Voltage, current sensor
  • • Temperature sensor

• Microcontroller unit

• PV performance monitoring

Commercial

PLC modems, WAN, Wi-Fi

A smart device application is developed and used to display the performance status of the entire PV system.

Gad and Gad, 2015. [14]

  • • Temperature sensor (I6 no.)
  • • SD card
  • • Liquid crystal display (LCD)
  • • Real Time Clock (RTC)
  • • Arduino: ATMega 2560,
  • • Serial peripheral interface:

PIC 18F46K20

• Ambient Temperature of solar system

Commercial

Wired

DAS for temperature monitoring in solar installations

Author's

Name,

Year, [Refs.]

Major Components of Developed System

Controller/

Technology

Parameters for Measurement

Commercial/

Laboratory-

Based

Experimental

Wired/Wire less Performance Data Transmission

Application

Han,

eta!., 2015, [15]

• Temperature sensor

  • • Voltage sensor
  • • Current sensor

• Data logger

• Microcontroller unit

  • • Temperature
  • • Voltage
  • • Current

Commercial

  • • Power line communication (PLC)
  • • Wi-Fi

A lost-cost and user- friendly system to monitor the performance of a PV system is designed and deployed.

Kaundal,

et al., 2015, [35]

  • • Current sensor ACS712
  • • Temperature sensor
  • • Humidity sensor
  • • LCD

Microcontroller

Voltage

Experimental

Zigbee RF module: CC2500

Performance decrement of the solar PV system is monitored by a wireless sensor node (Zigbee-RF module)

Moreno- Garcia, eta!., 2015,

[П]

  • • Temperature sensor PTI00
  • • Voltage sensor: LV 25-P
  • • Current sensor: LEM LA 305-S
  • • Irradiation sensor

• Real time programmable controller

  • • Temperature
  • • Voltage
  • • Current

• Irradiation

Commercial

  • • Radio frequency
  • • GPS

The proposed system monitors several parameters and ensures the performance quality based on retrieval and storage.

Adhya, et al., 2016, Ц8]

  • • Temperature sensor LM35
  • • Voltage and current transducers

Microcontroller

PIC18F46K22

Power

Experimental

GPRS module: SIM900A

An IoT-based experimental system is designed to monitor the solar PV system.

Author's

Name,

Year, [Refs.]

Major Components of Developed System

Controller/

Technology

Parameters for Measurement

Commercial/

Laboratory-

Based

Experimental

Wired/Wire less Performance Data Transmission

Application

Ali.

eta!.. 2016. [19]

  • • micro SD card
  • • RTC: DS3234
  • • Light intensity: TSL2561
  • • Proximity sensor
  • • C02 concentration

• Arduino: Atmel Atmega 328P

  • • Temperature Humidity
  • • Human occupancy
  • • Light intensity
  • • C02 concentration

Prototype

Wired

Arduino platform for measuring and recording long-term indoor environmental and building operational data

Anand. et al.. 2016, 120]

  • • Irradiance sensor
  • • Temperature and humidity sensor
  • • Current sensor
  • • Voltage sensor
  • • Resistive load

Arduino

Voltage and current

Experimental

Wired

A low-cost Arduino-based system w ith the assistance of sensors is designed to measure the current and voltage of solar PV module.

Claros-Marfil, etal., 2016, [21]

  • • Temperature sensor DSI8B20
  • • SD card
  • • Ultrasonic sensor (SR04)
  • • 8 relay circuits: 30V DC operated
  • • LCD: 16x2
  • • Light dependent resistor
  • • Water pump
  • • Fluid level sensor

• Arduino: Atmel Atmega ADK

  • • Water flow
  • • Temperature

Prototype

Wired

Temperature control of tank during water flow

(Continued)

Author's

Name,

Year, [Refs.]

Major Components of Developed System

Controller/

Technology

Parameters for Measurement

Commercial/

Laboratory-

Based

Experimental

Wired/Wire less Performance Data Transmission

Application

Laskar, eta!.. 2016. [22]

  • • Temperature sensor DHT-11
  • • Pressure sensor: BMP-085
  • • Accelerometer ADXL-335

Arduino Uno Atmel Atmega 328 microcontroller

  • • Pressure
  • • Humidity
  • • Temperature

Prototype

RF module- 433 MHz

Environmental parameters, e.g. pressure, temperature, and humidity, are measured at different altitudes

Shukla, et al., 2016, 123]

  • • Ammeter and voltmeter
  • • Infrared gun
  • • Thermometer
  • • Irradiance meter TM 207
  • • Environmental meter
  • • Variable resistive load

Voltage and current measurement using Multimeter RM 155

  • • Energy and exergy efficiency
  • • Temperature
  • • Humidity

Experimental

Wired

A transparent PV module is considered for the performance assessment under humidity and separate temperature environment

Touati, etal., 2016, [24]

  • • RTD sensor
  • • Wind speed sensor
  • • Dust sensor

Microcontroller

  • • Ambient temperature
  • • Humidity
  • • Dust
  • • Wind
  • • Solar irradiance

Prototype

Xbcc Pro

Assessment of environmental parameters, e.g. ambient temperature, dust accumulation, humidity, solar irradiation, etc., and the effect on PV performance

Author's

Name,

Year, [Refs.]

Major Components of Developed System

Controller/

Technology

Parameters for Measurement

Commercial/

Laboratory-

Based

Experimental

Wired/Wire less Performance Data Transmission

Application

Wong, et al., 2016, [25]

  • • Humidity sensor
  • • Temperature sensor
  • • Dust intensity sensor
  • • UltraViolet
  • • Radiation sensor
  • • Noise index sensor
  • • LCD display

Atduino Uno Atmel Atmega

  • • Humidity
  • • Temperature
  • • Dust intensity
  • • Ultra Violet
  • • radiation
  • • Noise index

Prototype

GPS, Wi-Fi and 3G

Development and deployment of microenvironmental monitoring system at construction sites

Ibrahim, eta!., 2016, [26]

  • • Voltage regulator LM3I7
  • • Heat sensor

Arduino Mega

Voltage

Experimental

Wireless sensor node

Wireless sensor node- based solar performance data transfer system is designed.

Patil, et al„ 2017.127]

  • • Current sensor ACS712
  • • Voltage sensor
  • • Resistors (10-100 kfi)

Arduino

  • • Voltage
  • • Current

Experimental

IoT

The sensor-based circuit system is designed with Arduino and used for communicating the performance of solar PV system on the cloud through IoT.

Author's

Name,

Year, [Refs.]

Major Components of Developed System

Controller/

Technology

Parameters for Measurement

Commercial/

Laboratory-

Based

Experimental

Wired/Wire less Performance Data Transmission

Application

Rohit, et allot 7, [28]

  • • Humidity sensor
  • • Temperature sensor
  • • Irradiation sensor
  • • Current sensor
  • • Voltage sensor
  • • DAQcard

Atduino PC interface. Lab-VIEW

  • • Humidity sensor
  • • Temperature
  • • Irradiation
  • • Current
  • • Voltage

Experimental

Wired

Real-time data acquisition and monitoring of 5 W PV module is carried out in the energy center. Different parameters are successfully acquired and displayed on the front panel of the LabVIEW software.

Song and Haberl, 2017.129]

  • • Pyranometer
  • • Data logger

PC interface

  • • Solar irradiation
  • • Solar transmittance

commercial

Wired

Measurement and validation on-site global solar transmittance as a function of varying angles of incidence for glazing samples under natural clear-sky conditions is carried out.

 
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