Vanadium Dioxide-Based Thermochromic Smart Windows


The Big ChallengeThermal, Solar, and Luminous RadiationThermochromic Materials, Notably Vanadium DioxideThin Films and Nanoparticles of VO2: Some Challenges and OpportunitiesToward Practical VO2-Based Thermochromic Glazing: A Multistep ApproachAchieving Long-Term DurabilityHaving the Thermochromic Shift at Room TemperatureEnhancing the Luminous TransmittanceBoosting the Solar Energy ModulationPerformance Limits for Thermochromic GlazingSome Conclusions and CommentsReferencesEffect of Doping on the Thermochromic Performance of VО2IntroductionExperimental InvestigationsMg DopingW DopingSb DopingF DopingN DopingH DopingSimulations of Elemental Doping in VO2Concluding Remarks and OutlookReferencesVО2 Nanocomposite Coatings for Smart WindowsOptical Simulation of VO2-Based NC CoatingsEffective-Medium TheoryVО2-based NC coatingsVO2-based core/shell structuresFour-Flux MethodAccuracy of a Theoretical SimulationPreparation of VO2-Based NC Coatings for Luminous Transmittance and Solar Energy Modulation Ability ImprovementNanoporous VO2 Thin FilmsVО2-Based Inorganic NC CoatingsVO2-Based Organic Nanocomposite CoatingVО2-Based NC Coatings Modified with Other Light Functional MaterialsAdjustment of Other Optical Performance of VO2-Based NC CoatingsVО2-based NC coatings with color modulationImprovement of solar-heat shielding ability (Ts) for VО2 NPsVО2 NC coatings with low emissionVО2-Based NC Coatings with Infrared and Visible-Light UtilizationVО2/hydrogel hybrid nanothermochromic material with ultrahigh solar modulation and luminous transmissionVО2 NC coating with electrochromism-thermochromism dual-response propertiesVО2 NC coatings for energy saving and generationConclusionAntireflection for the Performance of VО2 Thermochromic Thin FilmsThe Principle of AntireflectionAntireflection on a VО2 Thin FilmSingle-Layer and Double-Layer AR CoatingsMultilayer Antireflection CoatingGradient AR CoatingsNanostructure AR CoatingConclusionsControllable Synthesis of Porous Vanadium Dioxide NanostructuresIntroductionPorous Design for Property EnhancementApproaches for Porosity ConstructionColloidal Lithography AssemblyPolymer-Assisted DepositionDual-Phase TransformationFreeze-Drying PreparationConclusion and OutlookBiomimetic, Gridded Structure, and HybridationBiomimeticGrid StructuresHybridationEnhance Thermochromic PropertiesVО2/hydrogel compositesIon liquids/VО2 compositesLiquid crystals/VО2 compositesIncreasing StabilityTransparent host material/VО2 compositeVО2/SiО2 core-shell compositeMultifunctionSelf-cleaning and wettability smart windowsEnergy-generating VО2 smart windowsDual-response electrothermal VО2 smart windowConclusionsHydrothermal Synthesis of Thermochromic VО2 for Energy-Efficient WindowsIntroductionHydrothermal Synthesis of VО2 PolymorphsHydrothermal Synthesis of VО2 PowdersOD VО2 NanoparticlesOne-step hydrothermal methodHydrothermal method combined with annealingD VО2 NanowiresD VО2 NanosheetsD VО2 MicrostructureVО2 Smart Windows with Hydrothermal PowdersHydrothermal Synthesis of VО2 FilmsHydrothermal Derivation TechnologyMicrowave-Hydrothermal MethodContinuous Hydrothermal Flow MethodConclusion and PerspectivesChemical Vapor Deposition and Its Application in VО2 SynthesisIntroductionDefinition of Chemical Vapor DepositionAdvantage and Limitation of CVDCommonly Used CVD MethodsAtmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor DepositionMetal-Organic Chemical Vapor DepositionPlasma–Enhanced Chemical Vapor DepositionAerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapor DepositionAtomic Layer DepositionApplication of CVD in VО2 DepositionParameter Control in APCVD Growth of a VО2 Thin FilmParameters that affect film growth in an APCVD system with an inorganic vanadium precursorParameters that affect film growth in an APCVD system with an organic vanadium precursorParameter Control in MOCVD Growth of a VО2 Thin FilmParameter Control in PECVD Growth of a VО2 Thin FilmParameter Control in AACVD Growth of a VО2 Thin FilmParameter Control in Hybrid AA/APCVD Growth of a VО2 Thin FilmParameter Control in ALD Growth of a VО2 Thin FilmApplication of Computer Simulation to the VО2 Synthesis Process OptimizationGoverning Equations of Computational Fluid Dynamics ModelingThermodynamics of an APCVD ReactorCVD Reactor GeometryMethodologies of CFD Simulation Steps AnalysisSimulation ResultsPhysical Vapor Deposition and Its Application in Vanadium Dioxide SynthesisReactive Pulse Laser DepositionOxygen Partial PressureSubstrate TemperatureEpitaxial GrowthIon Plating/Ion ImplantationThermal EvaporationElectron Beam DepositionMolecular Beam EpitaxySputteringIntroductionReactive Direct Current Magnetron SputteringWithout a postannealing processWith a postannealing processReactive RF-Magnetron SputteringReactive Pulsed DC Magnetron SputteringReactive High-Power Impulse Magnetron SputteringInductively Coupled Plasma-Assisted SputteringInverted Cylindrical Magnetron SputteringIon-Beam-Assisted SputteringNonreactive Sputtering MethodsCeramic target systemVanadium target system with pure argon sputteringModification to a Sputtering System for High-Performance VО2 filmsLow-temperature deposition of VО2 films by sputteringTransition temperature control of VО2 by element dopingVО2 multilayer structure for high performance and multifunctionSol-Gel Synthesis of Thermochromic VО2 CoatingsIntroductionFundamentals of the Sol-Gel MethodSol-Gel Process for VO2 CoatingsInorganic Sol-Gel MethodOrganic Sol-Gel MethodSol-Gel Strategies for Improved Thermochromic PropertiesDopingVO2-Based Composite CoatingsConclusionVО2-Based Smart Coatings with Long-Term Durability: Review and PerspectiveIntroductionEnhanced Durability of VО2 NanoparticlesProtective Layers for VО2 Thin FilmsSummary and the FutureReduce Transition Temperature; Enhance Visible Transmittance and Solar Modulation AbilityColorEmissivityStabilityToxicityScaled-Up Production of VО2 NanoparticlesProcessCombination of Thermochromic VО2 with Other Energy-Saving System and Other FunctionalitiesEnergy Calculation
 
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