Execute Project Works

The following are the contract requirements as per the scope of project work to be executed by the contractor:

  • 1. Development of detailed engineering
  • 2. Material procurement as per specified codes and standards from the approved vendors
  • 3. Construction the facility/project as per the specifications to produce required products

Develop Detailed Engineering

Detailed engineering helps ensure project quality through several activities. These include [1]

  • • building flexibility into the project baseline to allow for changes and update the schedule and budget
  • • monitoring and controlling of project progress

Detailed engineering activities are similar, although more in-depth than the design activities in the FEED. The size, shape, levels, performance characteristics, technical details, and requirements of all the individual components are established and integrated into the detailed engineering.

The contractor (designer) has to include the following elements while developing detailed engineering:

  • • Contract/specification requirements
  • • Plans
  • • Elevations
  • • Levels
  • • Axis
  • • Grids
  • • Sizing
  • • Zoning
  • • Constructability
  • • Technical capability
  • • Functional capability
  • • Operational capability
  • • Engineering economy
  • • Energy conservation requirements
  • • Sustainability
  • • Product quality
  • • Reliability
  • • Operational safety
  • • Safety and environmental requirements
  • • Calculation for accuracy of the engineering
  • • Schematics, wherever required
  • • Regulatory requirements
  • • Supportability during maintenance (maintainability)

These elements have to be considered as a base for the development of detailed engineering to meet customer requirements and will help achieve the qualitative project.

8.6.6.1.1 Drawings

The contractor (designer) has to develop detailed engineering based on the criteria discussed in Section 8.6.5.1. Following is the list of major areas for the development of detailed engineering for oil and gas project:

  • 1. Plot Plan
  • 1.1 General Plot plan
  • 1.2 Unit Plot Plan
  • 2. Process
  • 2.1 Process Design Basis and Criteria
  • 2.2 Process Description
  • 2.3 Shutdown Philosophy
  • 2.4 Operation Philosophy
  • 2.5 Flare and Venting Philosophy
  • 2.6 Heat and Material Balance
  • 2.7 Process and Instrumentation Diagrams
  • 2.8 Process Flow Diagram
  • 2.9 Process Automation Diagram
  • 2.10 Equipment Selection Criteria
  • 2.11 Process Equ ipment Datasheet
  • 2.12 Heat Exchanger’s Thermal Design
  • 2.13 Cause and Effect Diagram
  • 3. Process SMP
  • 4. Piping
  • 4.1 Piping Design Basis
  • 4.2 Piping General Arrangement Drawing
  • 4.3 Piping Isometric
  • 4.4 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
  • 4.5 Piping Routing Design
  • 4.6 Piping System Requirements
  • 4.7 Pipe Racks/Supports
  • 5. Pumping Station
  • 6. Mechanical
  • 6.1 Mechanical Design Basis
  • 6.2 Storage Tank Design
  • 6.3 Equipment Mechanical Design
  • 7. Utility Flow Diagram
  • 7.1 Utility Balance Study
  • 7.2 Underground Piping Layout
  • 8. Civil
  • 8.1 Civil and Structural Design Basis
  • 8.2 Grading Plan
  • 8.3 Equipment Foundation
  • 8.4 Septic Tanks
  • 8.5 Steel Structure Design
  • 8.6 Loading Platform
  • 8.7 Shelter
  • 9. Electrical
  • 9.1 Electrical Design Basis
  • 9.2 LV Switchgear
  • 9.3 HV Switchgear
  • 9.4 Cable Schedule
  • 9.5 Earthing/Grounding System
  • 9.6 Variable Frequency Drives
  • 10. Electrical Substation
  • 11. Instrumentation and Control
  • 11.1 Instrumentation and Control Design Basis
  • 11.2 Overall Instrumentation System
  • 11.3 Control Rooms
  • 12. Inline Valve Datasheet
  • 12.1 Control Valves
  • 13. Equipment Handling Layout
  • 14. Tie-in Drawing
  • 15. Fire and Gas Detection System
  • 15.1 Fire and Gas System Layout Drawing
  • 16. Fire-fighting system
  • 14.1 Fire Water Distribution Layout
  • 17. Supervisory Control System
  • 18. Leak Detection System
  • 19. Cathodic Protection System
  • 20. Corrosion monitoring system
  • 21. Security and Access Control System
  • 22. ICT
  • 23. Building
  • 23.1 Building Architectural Drawings
  • 23.2 Structural Drawings
  • 23.3 МЕР Drawings
  • 23.4 Drainage System
  • 23.5 Fire Suppression System
  • 23.6 Elevator/Conveying System
  • 23.7 Low-Voltage System
  • 23.8 Schematic for Water Distribution System
  • 23.9 Schematic for Building Management System
  • 23.10 Schematic for Electrical Works
  • 23.11 Switchgear and Panels
  • 24. Landscape
  • 24.1 Plants
  • 24.2 Irrigation System
  • 25. External Works
  • 25.1 Street/Road
  • 25.2 Pedestrian Walkways
  • 25.3 Street Lighting
  • 26. Parking
  • 26.1 Parking
  • 26.2 Parking Control System
  • 27. Coating and Painting
  • 28. Specifications
  • 29. Calculations
  • 29.1 Pump Sizing
  • 29.2 Storage Tanks
  • 29.3 Pressure Vessels
  • 29.4 Exchangers
  • 29.5 Effluent Water Transfer Pumps
  • 29.6 Effluent Water Injection Pumps
  • 29.7 Relief Valves
  • 30. Datasheet
  • 30.1 Mechanical Equipment Data Sheet
  • 30.2 Control Valves
  • 30.3 Piping Class Data Sheet
  • 30.4 Instrument Datasheet
  • 31. Lists
  • 31.1 Mechanical Material List
  • 31.2 Instrument List
  • 31.3 Tie-in Material
  • 31.4 Line List
  • 32. Reports and Analysis
  • 32.1 Flare Analysis
  • 32.2 Corrosion and Risk Assessment
  • 32.3 Piping Stress Analysis
  • 32.4 Control System Report
  • 32.5 Environmental Impact Assessment
  • 32.6 HAZID
  • 32.7 HAZOP
  • 32.8 Geographical Survey
  • 32.9 Topographical Survey
  • 32.10 Pulsation Study for Pumps
  • 32.11 Dynamic Analysis
  • 8.6.6.1.1.1 Perform Interdisciplinary Coordination The contractor (designer) has to perform interdisciplinary coordination of drawings among all the trades to ensure that all the requirements have been incorporated in the detailed engineering.
  • 8.6.6. i.2 Detailed BOQ

The contracted BOQ is revised taking into consideration the detailed engineering.

8.6.6.1.3 Detail Specifications

The contracted specifications are revised taking into consideration the detailed engineering.

8.6.6.1.4 Estimate Project Schedule

The project schedule is estimated taking into consideration the detailed engineering. The contractor (designer) has to ensure that the revised schedule is as per the contracted schedule to complete the project.

8.6.6.1.5 Estimate Cost

The project cost is estimated taking into consideration the detailed engineering. The contractor (designer) has to ensure that the estimated cost does not exceed the contracted amount.

8.6.6.1.6 Manage Detailed Engineering Quality

In order to reduce errors and omission in detailed engineering, it is necessary to review and check the engineering development for quality assurance by the quality control personnel from the project team through itemized review checklists to ensure that detailed engineering drawings fully meet owner’s objectives/goals and are technically and functionally compatible.

The designer has to plan quality (planning of detailed engineering work), perform quality assurance, and control quality for preparing detailed engineering. This will mainly consist of the following.

  • 8.6.6.1.6.1 Plan Quality
  • • Identify requirements listed under contract documents
  • • Establish scope of work for preparation of detailed engineering drawings
  • • Determine number of drawings to be produced
  • • Identify quality standards and codes to be complied
  • • Establish design criteria
  • • Identify regulatory requirements
  • • Identify safety and environmental requirements
  • • Establish quality organization with responsibility matrix
  • • Develop engineering (drawings and documents) review procedure
  • 8.6.6.1.6.2 Quality Assurance
  • • Collect data
  • • Investigate site conditions
  • • Prepare engineering drawings
  • • Ensure functional and technical compatibility
  • • Ensure the design is constructible
  • • Ensure operational objectives are met
  • • Ensure drawings are fully coordinated with all disciplines
  • • Ensure the design is cost-effective
  • • Ensure selected/recommended materials meet owner objectives
  • • Ensure that design fully meets the owner’s objectives/goals
  • 8.6.6.1.6.3 Control Quality
  • • Check the quality of engineering drawings
  • • Check accuracy and correctness of design
  • • Check for regulatory compliance

TABLE 8.30

Mistake Proofing Chart to Eliminate Detailed Engineering Errors

Serial Number

Items

Points to be Considered to Avoid Mistakes

1

Information

  • 1. Contract documents
  • 2. Contract SPECIFICATIONS
  • 3. FEED bais
  • 4. Client’s preferred requirements
  • 5. Data/information collection
  • 6. Regulatory requirements
  • 7. Codes and standards
  • 8. Historical data
  • 9. HAZID report
  • 10. Organizational requirements

2

Mismanagement

  • 1. Compare detailed engineering with actual requirements
  • 2. Inter disciplinary' coordination
  • 3. Application of different codes and standards
  • 4. Drawing size of different trades/specialist consultants

3

Omission

  • 1. Review and check design with contract requirements
  • 2. Review and check detailed engineering with client requirements
  • 3. Review and check detailed engineering with Regulatory requirements
  • 4. Review and check detailed engineering with codes and standards
  • 5. Check for all required documents

4

Selection

  • 1. Qualified team members
  • 2. Available material
  • 3. Nonhazardous material
  • 4. Installation methods
  • • Check project schedule
  • • Check project cost
  • • Check interdisciplinary requirements

Check the required number of drawings prepared drawing Table 8.30 illustrates mistake proofing chart to eliminate detailed engineering errors.

8.6.6.1.7 Estimate Project Resources

The contractor (designer) has to estimate the resources based on detailed engineering required to complete the project. While developing detailed engineering, more information in details is available to estimate manpower resources during the construction phase.

8.6.6.1.8 Manage Risks

The following are typical risks which normally occur during the development of detailed engineering:

  • • All the contract requirements are not taken into consideration while preparing the detailed engineering
  • • Scope of work-detailed engineering is not properly established and is incomplete
  • • The related project data and information collected are incomplete
  • • The related project data and information collected are likely to be incorrect and wrongly estimated
  • • Site investigations for existing conditions not verified
  • • Regulatory authorities’ requirements are not taken into consideration
  • • Fire and safety considerations recommended by the authorities not incorporated in the detailed engineering
  • • Environmental consideration
  • • Incomplete detailed engineering drawings and related information
  • • Inappropriate construction method
  • • Conflict with different trades
  • • Interdisciplinary coordination not done
  • • Wrong selection of materials, equipment, and systems
  • • Undersize equipment selection
  • • Project schedule not updated as per detailed data and project assumptions
  • • Errors in detail cost estimation
  • • Number of drawings not as per contract requirements

The contractor (designer) has to take into account the above-mentioned risk factors while developing the detail design.

8.6.6.1.9 Manage HSE Requirements

The contractor (designer) has to take into account environmental impact analysis (EIA) and HAZID reports while developing the detail design.

8.6.6.1.10 Review Detailed Engineering

The success of a project is highly correlated with the quality and depth of the detailed engineering prepared during this phase. Coordination and conflict resolution are important factors during the development of design to avoid omissions and errors. The detailed engineering has to be reviewed for the accuracy of drawings, interdisciplinary coordination, and documents before these are submitted to the owner/ consultant/project manager (PMC).

Table 8.31 illustrates major points for review of detailed engineering.

  • 8.6.6.1.10.1 Review Drawings (Quality Check) The contractor (designer) has to check the drawings for formatting, annotation, and interpretation. Table 8.32 lists the items to be checked for quality check (correctness) of detailed engineering drawings.
  • 8.6.6.1.10.2 Review Drawings (Coordination) Review all the drawings to ensure interdisciplinary coordination.

TABLE 8.31

Review of Detailed Engineering

Serial

Number

Description

Yes

No

Notes

A: Detailed Engineering (General)

A.l

Does the detailed engineering support owner’s project goals and objectives'?

A.2

Does the detailed engineering meets all the elements specified in contract documents'?

A.3

Whether the information/data collected is considered while preparing the detailed engineering?

A.4

Whether owner’s requirements updated and considered ?

A.5

Does the design meet all the performance requirements?

A.6

Whether constructability has been taken care?

A.7

Whether technical and functional capability considered?

A.8

Whether functional capability of process is checked while preparing the detailed engineering?

A.9

Whether design confirm with fire and egress requirements?

A.10

Whether engineering/installation risks been identified, analyzed, and responses planned for mitigation?

A.l 1

Whether health and safety requirements are considered while preparing detailed engineering?

A.12

Whether environmental constraints considered?

A.13

Does energy conservation is considered?

A.14

Does sustainability considered while preparing detailed engineering?

A.15

Whether Regulator)' requirements are considered?

A.16

Whether accessibility is considered?

A.17

Does the detailed engineering meet ease of maintenance?

A.18

Whether all the drawings are numbered?

B: Process Engineering

B.l

Whether all the drawings related to process engineering prepared?

C: Mechanical

C.l

Whether storage tank drawings prepared as per contract requirements'?

C.2

Whether steel fabrication drawings prepared as per contract requirements?

D: Electrical and Instrumentation

D.l

Whether electrical and instrumentation drawings prepared as per contract requirements'?

E: Utility

E.l

Whether all the utility drawings prepared as per contract requirements?

F: Civil

F.l

Whether civil drawings prepared as per contract requirements?

TABLE 8.31 (Continued)

Review of Detailed Engineering

Serial

Number

Description

Yes

No

Notes

GtBuildings

G.l

Whether architectural plans, elevations, finishes...etc., for building are drawn as per local building codes?

G.2

Whether structural details for the building are properly shown?

H: Automation and Control

HI

Whether all the detailed engineering for instrumentation and control systems are prepared?

H.2

Whether ICT drawings are prepared?

H.3

Whether detailed engineering for all the low-voltage systems as per contract considered?

1: Landscape

1.1

Whether landscape plans prepared

1.2

Whether plants selected?

1.3

Whether irrigation system layout prepared?

J: External

J.l

Whether site layout plans showing roads, walkways, parking areas, prepared?

J.2

Whether street lighting plans prepared?

J.3

Whether project site boundaries are properly marked and demarcated?

K: Schedule

K.l

Whether the schedule matches as per contract execution plan and is achievable?

L: Financial

L.l

Whether estimated cost is equal or less than the contracted amount?

M: Drawings

M.l

Whether drawings for all trades prepared as per contract requirements?

N: Reports

N.l

Whether reports are prepared as per contract requirements objectives?

O: Submittals

0.1

Whether numbers of sets prepared as per contract requirements?

  • 8.6.6.1.10.3 Review BOQ The contractor has to prepare BOQ based on detailed engineering and compare with the contracted BOQ to evaluate if there are major changes in the BOQ.
  • 8.6.6.1.10.4 Review Specifications The contractor (designer) has to review the contracted specifications to find out any new activity is considered while developing detailed engineering.

TABLE 8.32

Quality Check for Detailed Engineering Drawings

Serial Number

Points to be Checked

Yes/No

1

Check for use of approved version of AutoCAD

2

Check drawing for

  • • Title frame
  • • Attribute
  • • North orientation
  • • Key plan
  • • Issues and Revision Number

3

Client name and logo

4

Designer (consultant name)

5

Drawing title

6

Drawing number

7

Contract reference number

8

Date of drawing

9

Drawing scale

10

Annotation;

  • • Text size
  • • Dimension style
  • • Fonts
  • • Section and elevation marks

11

Layer standards including line weights

12

Line weights, line type (continuous, dash, dot, etc.)

13

Drawing continuation reference and Match line

14

Plot Styles (CTB-color-dependent plot style tables)

15

Electronic CAD File Name and Project location

16

XREF (X reference) attachments (if any)

17

Image reference (if any)

18

Section references

19

Symbols

20

Legends

21

Abbreviations

22

General notes

23

Drawing size as per contract requirements

24

List of drawings

Source: Abdul Razzak Rumane. (2013). Quality Tools for Managing Construction Projects. Reprinted with permission from Taylor & Francis Group.

8.6.6.1.11 Finalize Detailed Engineering

A final detailed engineering design is prepared incorporating the comments, if any,

found during analysis and review of the drawings and documents for submission to

the owner/client.

  • [1] meeting the owner’s requirements and the project goals and objectives • developing project activity plan for the project • estimating accurately the hours of effort and costs involved in achieving aquality project • developing a realistic schedule with appropriate milestones to confirmprogress
 
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