Making Commons Dynamic: Understanding Change Through Commonisation and Decommonisation

I. Framing commons as a process: The rudiments of commonisation and decommonisationThe commonisation-decommonisation perspectiveProperty rights and the excludability/subtractability conundrumFrom myth to reality: Tragedy of the commonsConceptualisation and theorising the commonsInterdisciplinary enrichment for thinking about the commonsPlan of the bookReferencesII. Roots of decommonisationThe dynamics and performance of marine tourism commons (MTC) in the Karimunjawa Island Marine National Park» IndonesiaA brief overview of KNPMethodsIdentifying the institutional processes: The dynamics of the MTCPhase I - 1982 to 1989: Open-access and state propertyPhase II - 1990-2003: Starting commonisation and privatizationPhase III - 2004-2011: Struggling commonisationPhase IV - 2012-present: DecommonisationAssessing institutional performance of the MTC through the SESFGovernance system (GS - weak)Resource user (RU - weak)Resource system (RS - weak)Resource units (RU - weak)Interaction and outcomes (weak)External system - Social and economic setting (S - No)ConclusionsAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesThe cascading effects of coastal commonisation and decommonisationCase study and methodsBeaches as public resourcesDrivers of (de)commonisation of sandy beachesHow does (de)commonisation progress?Beaches: From public resources to club resources?Sand: A common pool resources under changing exploitationThe impacts of (de)commonisationIs governance changing?SummaryReferencesGoverning fluvial commons in Colonial Bihar: Alluvion and diluvion regulation and decommonisationBackground and contextDiara as fluvial commonRiverine ecology influencing historyPrudent traditionBeginning of decommonisationMigrationFishing community of the diaraConclusionNotesReferencesIII. What enables commonisation?Five key characteristics that drive commonisation: Empirical evidence from Sri Lankan shrimp aquacultureStudy area: Lagoon systemSample profileHistory and development of Sri Lankan shrimp aquacultureZonal Crop Calendar (ZCC)Multi-layered institutional structureDiscussionConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesVicuna conservation and the reinvigoration of Indigenous communities in the AndesStudy sites and methodsA brief history of vicuna use and local institutionsFrom near extinction to recoveryThe establishment of vicuna management programmesVicuna management in Jujuy, legal framework and early experiencesA brief portrait of Andean communities from YaviThe beginning of the (re) commonisationFrom conflicts with vicunas to the formation of the CAMVIThe chakuSocio-economic impacts of vicuna managementKey factors of the commonisation process(Re)commonisations of vicunas, benefits and some threatsAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesCommoning and climate justiceHow can commoning advance climate justice and decolonisation?ConclusionNoteReferencesUnderstanding groundwater common-pool resources: Commonisation and decommonisation of cenotes in Yucatan, MexicoFirst challenge: Analysis of past and present management of cenotesSecond challenge: Using the SES framework and identifying variablesWere cenotes managed as commons in the past?Are cenotes currently used as commons?Third challenge: Reversing the process of decommonisation and calls for the futureReferencesIV. Commonisation and decommonisation as parallel processesCommoning and the commons as more-than-resources: A historical perspective on Comcaac or Seri fishingTheoretical framing: Complementarities between commonisation and commoningDynamic processes of commonisation and decommonisation in the history of Comcaac fishing commonsThe creation of the Seri fishing cooperative: Assembling community and Comcaac collective actionCommonisation in the Infiernillo Channel: A space for commoning through self-determination and collective actionCommonisation or decommonisation? The proliferation of family fishing cooperativesConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesConcurrent processes of commonisation and decommonisation of Guadalquivir River (south Spain)Study area and methodology Study areaResearch methodsCommonisation process of the Guadalquivir River for rice farmingBackground of collective irrigation water management in SpainBroader social-political contextMulti-level governance in rice farmingDecommonisation process of the Guadalquivir River for tourism and fishingModern mechanized rice monoculture, weak nature-culture connection, and little scope for tourismChanges in fishing practices, new fishing legislations and disempowered fishing associationConclusionsAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesCreating a commons for global climate governance: Possibilities and perils in the Paris Climate AgreementStrengthening the global climate regimePossibilities and perils in the Paris Climate AgreementInformation sharingThe role of incentives: Financial and technical assistanceAligning national and international interestsConclusionsNotesReferencesMigration and the commons: Recommonisation in Indigenous MexicoStudying the changing commonsVillage governance and the commons in Mexico and OaxacaStudy sites and methodsEmpirical insights and reflectionsMigration dynamics in the study communitiesChanges in village demographicsA respatialised geography of the commonsThe deterritorialisation of livelihoodThe local burden of collective actionA respatialised community of commonersDecommonisation pressures?The recommonisation responseRe-newed territorial useRe-worked membership rulesLooking aheadRe-considered normsContinued stress from continued changeConclusionReferencesDecommonisation-commonisation dynamics and social movements: Insights from a meta-analysis of case studiesMethodsDecommonisation driversNatural resource management policiesEconomic policiesEncroachment by large-scale usersEncroachment by small commercial usersPolitical rights policyDecommonisation impacts and the motivation for social mobilisationLivelihood impactsLoss of resource rights (access, use and management)ExternalitiesErosion of community assetsCommonisation pathways though social movementsDefense of communal rights and territoriesPromotion of economic autonomyStrengthening of community tiesImprovement of community decision makingEnhancement of community organisation capacitiesConclusionsNotesReferencesDecommonisation and new-commonisation of mountain commons in northern PakistanPerspective on commons processes in northern PakistanResearch methodsKey factors of decommonisation and loss of collective rightsProtected areas as a major driver of decommonisationSummer pasturing systemWinter pasturing systemNew-commonisationEfforts towards new-commonisationLocal institutions and new partnerships in commons management: A way forwardIs new-commonisation a right strategy for sustainability of commons?ConclusionsReferencesV. ClosingGovernance and the process of (de)commonisationA framework to connect governance and (de)commonisationLessons from experience: Governance pathways and processes of (de)commonisationTarituba community and Tamoios protected area, Paraty, BrazilPrivatisation, resources rights, and aquaculture in MozambiqueOcean governance and the development of pelagic fisheries in DominicaShifts in property rights in Nurreri and Jabho Lagoon, PakistanLessons learned: Governance and the pathways of commonisationActorsRules and rightsPower and discursive practicesConclusionReferencesCommonisation-decommonisation perspective: Lessons for practice, policy and theorySynthesis and key insights. What do the chapters say about commonisation- decommonisation?Chapters focusing on the roots of decommonisationWhat enables commonisation?Commonisation and decommonisation as parallel processesMany faces of commonisation and decommonisationSeeing the commons as a processReferences
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