IMPACTS OF AW ON THE SOIL-PLANT SYSTEM

Agricultural waste has much importance in the current deteriorating environmental scenario where air, soil, and plant health affect the yield losses and the environmental consequences (Table 2.1). The application of agriculture waste in soil has many forms. A study was conducted to check AW’s suitability in soil and biochar obtained from the diy method. Results revealed that slow pyrolysis in AW lowers the alkali and alkaline earth metal along with heavy metals load from soil. It is also economically cheaper than biochar produced by diy method (Kambo and Dutta, 2015). Compost enhances the microbial activity in soil due to which enzymatic activity gets improved. These AW are also involved in the improvement of carbon sequestration in the soils (Oo et al., 2018). Soil physiochemical properties are also enhanced which yields better productivity and yield of crop along with nutritional value improvement (Abujabhah et al., 2016). Fanners have been using organic amendments since long time ago to improve the organic matter content in soil to maintain the healthy fertility status of soil (Scotti et al., 2015). Application of AW in soil significantly improves the soil organic matter and reduces the need of nitrogen and phosphoms application to the soil without affecting the yield (Melo et al., 2018). Coconut husk, woodchips, and orange bagasse have been evaluated and found that orange bagasse biochar enhances nitrogen and phosphoms nutrition. There are numerous positive and negative impacts of AWs on different environs; some are depicted in Figure 2.4.

SL.

No.

Agricultural

Waste

Impacts on Soil and Plants

Negative

Positive

References

Soil

Plants

Soil

Plants

1.

Municipal solid waste

Increase the heavy metals bank in soil.

High heavy metals in roots.

Improve nutrient cycling soil enzymes activity.

Growth and vield inmrovement. Less heavy metals in plants

Meena et al. (2019); Carbonell et al. (2011)

2.

Farmyard

manure

Alleviates water stress, and heavy metals toxicity in soil

Enhances phosphorus use efficiency and increase nitrate concentration.

Increase

micronutrients in plants

Andriamananj aia et al. (2018); Suthar (2012)

3.

Sugarcane

bagasse

Decreased fungal activity.

Impairs nutrient uptake in plants

Decreased in heavy metals and increase in enzymatic activity.

Enhance yield and growth.

Nieetal. (2018); Dotaniya et al. (2016)

4.

Fresh chicken manure

Decrease the antibiotic resistance.

Increases pH and disturbs equilibrium of Ca. Mg.

Improve soil microbial activity and improve biomass production.

Increase the yield.

Una et al.

(2019); Yu et al. (2018)

5.

Crop residues

Inc lease pest attack.

CR removal causes deleterious effects on soil and nutrient leaching.

Improve the soil physical properties, maintain soil temperature, and prevents any physical injury from raindrops.

Hinder the heavy metal uptake in contaminated soil to crops.

Cherubiu et al. (2018)

6.

Animal dead bodies

Continuous application increases heavy metal load in soil.

Heavy metals accumulation in edible portion of crop.

Increase the essential nutrient concentration in soil necessary for plant growth.

Growth and yield are enhanced.

Al-Wabel et al. (2018)

7.

Poultry

manure

Prolonged nutrient releases.

Extensive use causes crop burning.

Enhanced nitrate and nutrient contents in soil.

Increase the nutrient concentration in radish and tomatoes.

Aylaj et al.

(2018); Adekiya et al. (2019)

SL.

No.

Agricultural

Waste

Impacts on Soil and Plants

Negative

Positive

References

Soil

Plants

Soil

Plants

8.

Carbonized

poultry

manure

Nitrogen in it is not bioavailable for plant.

Available nutrients are not utilized by plants efficiently due to nitrogen deficiency in tissues.

Reduce the mass, pathogens attack, and odor in the soil system.

Enhance bionrass, available phosphorus potassium.

Steiner et al. (2018)

9.

Priming waste

Copper contamination may occur.

Reduce N,0 emissions, enhances carbon poll in soil.

Fix carbon, which is long term available to plants

Oo et al. (2018); Duca et al. (2016)

10.

Cotton stalk/ cotton stock derived bio-char

Unstable in soil with respect to bio-char

Increase the carbon contents of soil significantly.

Enhance the plant growth and yield.

Song et al. (2019)

11.

Crop residues burning fly ash

Suppress the growth of soil fungi.

Increase salinity'. TDS, and cations/anious concentration.

Enhance the Ca and OH ions activities in soils.

Buffers soil pH.

Contamination risk to plants grown on infected soil.

Shrivastava et al. (2018); Yao et al. (2015)

12.

Maize residue

-

-

Increase soil carbon, plant biomass, and nitrogen.

Increase chlorophyll contents and yield.

Mupairgwa et al. (2019)

13.

Wood-ash.

No significant effect on nutrient concentrations of foliar, litter, and stem tissue

Surface application of wood ash contributes nutr ients to soil.

Efficient nutrient supply.

Petrovsky et al. (2018)

14.

Pig manure vermicompost

Increased humic and fulvic acid concentration.

Plant nutrients increased.

Increased crop growth and yield.

Atiyelr et al. (2002)

Along with positive effects some constraints are also there, for example, manure application to soil reduces the activity of Mycorrhizal fungi and reduces their root growth (Elzobair et al., 2016). The addition of compost also has some negative effects on plants. Compost addition to soil increases the organic pollutants in soil and enhances the soil electrical conductivity. It also has issue of some heavy metal contamination in soil and hinders the growth of the seed (Gallardo-Lara and Nogales, 1987).

To avoid environmental issues, AW now a day is applied to soil to better plant production. Composts, biochars, and different manure are applied to achieve the ultimate benefit of getting better crop yield (Elzobair et al., 2016). These AW when processed form, are called organic amendments. These amendments supply the nutrients to plants and help them to grow well. These AW derived amendments give the plants micro and macronutrients to support biological and grain yield. These amendments also improve plants’ chlorophyll contents, improve water uptake, nutrients status, transpiration rates, and reduce heavy metals uptake in plants (Alvarez-Lopez et al., 2016).

On the other hand, there are some disadvantages that exist when we apply AW on plants in different forms. However, there are not many. The disadvantages of using AW include increased soil pH and calcium/magnesium equilibrium disturbance in the soil also disturbs the plant growth (Una et al., 2019), increased pest attacks, decreases fungal growth, AW release nutrients veiy slow' and their continuous application may results in the heavy metals buildup in the soil as these amendments and wastes hinder the heavy metals uptake to plant and adsorb them on their surfaces (Aylaj et al., 2018).

 
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