If one is interested in some other tiling, he should chase after it.26 One could be wrong, but the impression results that social pressure, in order to be financially secure, presents powerful influences over scientific-creativity psychology. If a social framework tending to stability exists, this acquires for the individual, unconsciously, priority status, and reduces psychological strain necessary to scientific creativity, which situation generalizes in Spain and one can foresee, so, a decay in quality although not, seemingly, quantity. The best way to avoid such a situation is not to pass via strain situations or obligations to science, the circumstance of the one that, being veiy little demanded, suffers for a contradiction, especially when it is compared to the sacrifices and instabilities of those that work in counties rich in science and, why not, economic resources.


Strauss published an introduction to philosophy.27 Table 16.1 gives some metaphors that have made history in philosophy.28

TABLE 16.1 Some Metaphors That Have Made History in Philosophy.


Humans are born to die.

We all die in the end.

(Cervantes). As much true, Sancho, as someday we will be dead.

(Keynes). In the long run we are all dead.

(Louis L’Amour). The more one learns the more he understands his ignorance.

(Albert Einstein). The more I learn, the more I realize how much I don’t know.

(Javier Sabada). The delimitation that supposes the beach between the ocean of the unattainable and the rationality of the land.


Cordoba University organized an online survey that presents as general objectives: to explore the beliefs, attitudes, and social behaviors of university (TRS and ASS) staff round diversity attention and education inclusion degree present in university practices.29 The information collection is situated in the framework of Project Attention to Diversity and Inclusive Education in Universities: Diagnosis and Institutionalization Indicators Evaluation. The research purpose is to diagnose diversity attention in universities for elaborating an institutionalization proposal of inclusive approach in Spanish context. The survey consists of four parts: (1) sociodemographic information, (2) beliefs, attitudes, and practices of attention to diversity in universities, (3) measuring of ideological attitudes, and (4) measuring of personality.

Socio-demographic information included the following questions:

Q1. Did you feel personally discriminated, in the last 12 months, by the following?

Belonging to an etlmic minority.

Belonging to a minority of migrated persons.

Having a minority sexual orientation.

My sex.

Belonging to a poblational group of advanced age (greater than 55 years).

Belonging to a poblational group of young age (lesser than 30 years).

Practicing Catholic religion.

Practicing other Christian religion.

Practicing Moslem religion.

Practicing Jewish religion.

Practicing a minority religion not previously mentioned. Being atheist.

Being agnostic.

Being indifferent vs. religion.

Belonging to a group of affiliated or sympathizers of a right- wing political party.

Belonging to a group of affiliated or sympathizers of a left- wing political party.

Belonging to a minority with disability.

Belonging to a minority with a chronic or infectious disease. Belonging to a socio-economic group of high income. Belonging to a socio-economic group of low income. Belonging to a linguistic minority.

Other collective to which I belong, by which I felt discriminated and that was not shown before.

Q2. With which of these collectives do you recognize yourself or do you feel identified? With:

An ethnic minority.

A minority of migrated persons.

A minority sexual orientation.

My sex.

The poblational group of advanced age (greater than 55 years). The poblational group of young age (lesser than 30 years). The Catholic religion collective.

A collective of other Christian religion.

The Moslem religion collective.

The Jewish religion collective.

A collective of other minority religion not previously mentioned.

The atheistic collective.

The agnostic collective.

A collective indifferent vs. religion.

The group of affiliated or sympathizers of a right-wing political party.

The group of affiliated or sympathizers of a left-wing political


A minority with disability.

A minority with a chronic or infectious disease.

The socio-economic group of high income.

The socio-economic group of low income.

A linguistic minority.


Beliefs, attitudes, and practices of attention to diversity in universities included questions.

Q1. The diversity concept means different ethnic group, race, nationality, or culture.

Q2. The diversity concept means persons with different thoughts and ideas.

Q3. The diversity concept means different education level.

Q4. The education system should emphasize learning on other cultural, religious, or gender groups.

Q5. Diversity/inclusion/fairness are an essential part of education that should be attended in university.

Q6. Diversity/inclusion/fairness are an institutional question but also individual, of every member.

Q7. One of the university purposes is to train students to manage in a more diverse society.

Q8. One of the university purposes is to train students to manage in a more diverse labor market.

Q9. In university curricula one should add specific subjects focused on women and minorities role.

Q10. It is important for universities to train persons to be successful in diverse world/prepare them in technical/academic competences.

Q11. Universities should develop specific actions to attend for diversity in the students collective.

Q12. Directive team of this university promotes actions of attention to diversity/inclusion/fairness.

Q13. In my university established trend exists favoring diversity/inclusion/fairness in curricular offers.

Q14. I develop research that in fonn/contents reflect commitment with diversity/inclusion/fairness.

Q15. I incorporate into research designs elements that favor cultures diversity/inclusion/fairness.

Q16. In my university, training courses related to diversity, inclusion, and fairness are offered.

Q17. I participate in education innovation projects explicitly reflecting diversity/etc. compromise.

Q18. I design teaching innovation projects incorporating matters of attention to gender diversity.

Q19. I invest time/effort on education practices promoting competences taking success of all student body.

Q20. I design objectives of my teaching focused on diversity, inclusion and fairness.

Q21. I offer support to help student body to develop individualized plans allowing getting learning.

Q22. I incorporate in lectures different teaching-learning methods to attend student body diversity.

Q23. I offer resources to meet student body necessities and attend inclusive-teaching development.

Q24. I tackle digital leaming/cooperative activities to favor learning of student body with diverse needs.

Measuring of ideological attitudes included the following questions:

Ql. Our society needs strong leaders that could eradicate extremism/ immorality that prevail in it.

Q2. Our society needs freethinkers with resoluteness to confront conventionalisms if it be annoying.

Q3. Traditions and old values already continue to indicate us the best way of living.

Q4. Our society would be better if we show tolerance and understanding for different ideas/values.

Q5. Laws punishing abortion/pornography and contributing protecting marriage must be observed.

Q6. Society needs to show opening to persons thinking by themselves and different to authorities.

Q7. Many persons dare State/criticize religion/ignore life forms without stopping being good.

Q8. One would admire/respect more our ancestors by their contribution to construction of society.

Q9. Many radical or immoral persons exist that try to ruin things; society should slow them down.

Q10. In defense of freedom of speech, we should allow publication of literature considered bad.

Qll. Society would improve if agitators were treated with humanity/ hying to make them see sense.

Q12. Every good citizen should help to remove the evil that poisons our country from inside.

Q13. An ideal society requires that some groups be at the peak and others be at the bottom.

Q14. Some social groups are simply inferior than other groups.

Q15. No group should dominate in the society.

Q16. Groups that are at the bottom are deserving of the same options and things than at the peak.

Q17. To work for group equality should not be our main objective.

Q18. It is unfair to try to do that the groups be equal.

Q19. We should do what we can to make equal the conditions that are offered to different groups.

Q20. We should work to give all the groups the same opportunity for being successfiil.

Measuring of personality included the following questions:

Ql. When I read a poem, or gaze at a work of art, I feel deep emotion or excitement.

Q2. Poetry has low or no effect on me.

Q3. I have a great variety of intellectual interests.

Q4. The forms that I found in art and nature arouse my curiosity.

Q5. I find boring philosophical discussions.

Q6. I have a lot of fantasy.

Q7. I like to concentrate on a dream/fantasy and, letting it grow/ develop, explore all its possibilities.

Q8. I have not much interest in being thinking about the nature of the universe or human condition.

Q9. I lose interest when people talk about abstract and theoretical questions.

Q10. I experience a great variety of emotions and feelings.

Qll. Frequently, I taste food new or from other countries.

Q12. I rarely experience strong emotions.

Q13. I tend to think the best of people.

Q14. I intimidate or flatter people in order that they do what I want.

Q15. I get with cunning that people do what I want.

Q16. If somebody starts to fight with me, I am also willing to fight.

Q17. When I have been offended, what I try is to forgive and forget.

Q18. My first reaction is to trust people.

Q19. Some persons think about me that I am cool and calculating.

Q20. I have a lot of faith in human nature.

Q21. I try to be humble.

Q22. I think that most of the people with which I treat are honest and reliable.

Q23. If necessary I can be sarcastic and sharp.

Q24. The persons that beg do not inspire sympathy in me.

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