Sustainable urban mobility: the environmental challenge for a conscious citizenship
Sustainable mobility campaigns
SAN ISIDRO's district participation in the Sustainable Transport Awards 2018
The reason of presenting this district is because San Isidro’s municipality has achieved to transform a car dependent city into an example of sustainable mobility for Peruvian cities. For example, between 2017 and 2018, this municipality presented its work to the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) sustainable transport award by presenting this quote:
San Isidro’s public space was invaded by cars, parked in restricted areas even though it has an underused private parking infrastructure. Also, the district experimented a demographic decrease while visitants continue to increase as the car usage does too. As an answer, the municipality actualized its District’s Urban Plan with a Transit Oriented Development vision.
As mentioned before, in the metropolitan area, public transport has the biggest share in daily transport selection. According to the data on distribution of transportation modes in San Isidro, in the year 2015, 157 200 (39%) of the 524 000 trips in San Isidro were made by regular public transportation, while 89 080 (17%) were made by taxi. That means that even in a district with a higher motorization (327veh/1000hab) rate than Lima-Callao Metropolis (181veh/1000hab), collective transport still occupies more than 50% of San Isidro’s trips, a rate that the 2015-2018 administration proposed to grow against any forecast.
The municipality worked in road safety with urban design interventions. Specifically, it worked with “zone 30” strategies, having implemented the first zone 30 in Peru with great results in sustainable mobility, land value, between others. They also introduced a parking management programme. In public space, parking spaces have been recovered with tactical urbanism. As well, a free rotary public parking system has reduced the unnecessary use of cars as these places can be occupied for two hours top.
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In private infrastructure, a reduction of parking requirements was implemented along with new requirements for cyclist’s infrastructure. It also allowed a better use of street level for receiving citizens (coffee shops, restaurants, etc.) under a policy of promoting walking habits.
All of this is inscribed in the Neutral Emission Zone (ZEN). This area is being also implemented with urban design which promotes sustainable mobility, environment protection/respect and safety in general. In addition, a local free bus travels the district with new services. One of them access the financial center directly; another one offers children an alternative to go to schools.
And for cyclists, it developed a cyclist’s network, with complementary infrastructure and a bicycle-sharing system (unluckily due to political issues, the next administration decided to decline that contract which should have started to operate on January 2019). The transferability of this example to other cities are the policies applied: TOD (transit oriented development). The application of this policy/vision/strategy in the city (district) has shown that metropolitan impact is possible from local policies. Demographic decrease has stopped by offering new housing building possibilities in a district with services and employment, allowing people to reduce unnecessary or long travels. Sustainable mobility consciousness has been increased by different activities in the public space and by intense and accurate communication. In a district with high motorization rate, we’ve proved that more infrastructure is not the solution to traffic jams and that it is possible to make the existing infrastructure more efficient and equitable for all types of transport/
A milestone for the establishment of TOD strategies was the ordinance 412-MSI which allowed San Isidro to create the first Neutral Emission Zone (as LEZ in other countries) in Lima’s CBD,6 which is an important area of San Isidro’s District and for the entire Metropolis. One of this ordinance’s strategies is to reduce parking requirements on private buildings in exchange for sustainable conditions such as cycling infrastructure (bicycle parking and dressing rooms, for example), LED illumination, hydric saving equipment and so on. That way, car infrastructure investment was reduced and consequently “car favouritism” as buildings became “green”, the opposite of previous administrations which prioritized car usage by negligence.
This ordinance has enabled also a better use of private property’s street level. It allows some commercial activities to use the space adjacent to the sidewalk (street level) in order to make more lively streets, where walking is an attractive activity as the streets are vibrant as well. Some conditions are also placed for this opportunity such as architectural integration, where the porosity of the building perimeter (façade) must allow this integration between the private and the public space.
A Mayor’s decree project relating to public space was also developed (not yet approved). This project aimed to regulate design and operative
The environment through the regulation 75 conditions in ZEN’s public space in order to create sustainable conditions for this area. Again, the first objective is to control emissions from motorized transport principally in this area. This way, motorized transport infrastructure is being reduced as more space is gained for nonmotorized transport, principally walking. As the ZEN area hosts Lima-Callao’s CBD, a significant number of citizens are commuting, visiting, walking and, in general, living in this area and for enabling a better and liveable public space, it is changing to receive more and wider sidewalks, cycleways, terraces, open-air activities and so on, which are necessary to become a more attractive place to walk, to cycle and to stay. As we can imagine, it aims to be a walking city, where motorized transport is losing territory with an urban design strategy using principally tactical urbanism and Barcelona’s superblock strategy.
A superblock pilot was projected to support this decree, a pilot which surrounds an important commercial area where brands and enterprises have their sieges. There, a considerable number of people have been walking and walk in this area, and sidewalks aren’t enough for this demand as the average width is 1.20 m whereas over 3.00 m is needed. Following that need, part of the superblock was implemented with strategies to discourage cars to enter this area and by allowing only residents or users to enter in its first pilot stage. In this stage, pass-through transit is the one being discouraged principally and walking and cycling habits are being promoted.
San Isidro’s Municipality, by their sustainable development vision, has been elaborating and developing land management policies aiming for the accomplishment of the district’s strategic objectives. Following this direction, the municipality has actualized the District’s Urban Plan considering sustainable urban development objectives established by the UN, San Isidro’s Local Development Concerted Plan and National and Metropolitan normative dispositions for urban plan’s development and actualization where the Neutral Emission Zone (ZEN) is determined and delimited.
Another milestone of TOD and land management policies was the approval of the 437-MSI San Isidro’s Municipality Ordinance which compiles and consolidates all normative referred to urban development, applying sustainable mobility and development concepts and modifying parking requirements between other strategies.
This ordinance established guidelines to promote “municipal retirement’s”7 use, a space previously not used, underused or used incorrectly. This device established modifications as more commercial types allowed, aligned with the street level establishments.
The mobility zone known as “Neutral Emission Zone”, where this ordinance is applied, is essentially the CBD, where the priority will be the creation of attractive streets for pedestrian and private business merge with public space. In this zone, the actual situation is recognized for high
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parking requirements for any project, without considering that the district’s commerce zones, visitor’s trips into commerce and business are made principally on foot or taxi, resulting uncoherent the requirement of parking which won’t be used. The urban sustainable development concept that the administration implemented aimed as principle to discourage the use of low occupancy vehicles, especially private cars, as it looked to contribute to enhance the environmental quality from the reduction on GHG and the optimization of natural resources.
This regulation aimed also to incentivize, promote and preserve residential use through planning towards a sustainable and resilient district, which allows to safely cope with the district’s evolution. This flexibility is possible only through a healthy and complementary land’s occupation where an adequate diversity of land use promoted allows, in the case of the Financial Center and its surrounding areas (ZEN), to have offices, shops, equipment and services complemented by housing.
San Isidro is one of the most important centralities since it hosts the city’s financial center; it is home to many work centers and most workers are professionals with a high education level. In this way, there is a great potential of professional people working in the Financial Center who might be interested in having a home near their work center. While the land value is high, it turns out to be an attractive area given the offer of services, connectivity and equipment. Similarly, parking has been regulated considering the accessibility to public transport, as well as its services and equipment.
The Municipality has also raised the possibility that building projects, in the Financial Center, which have metropolitan trade zoning (CM), may have higher building level than allowed, provided that the owner of the property is withdrawn at the level floor to leave public space. This application is aimed at improving the provision of public spaces in the district, because if the designer finds advantages in height and densification, he/she would be willing to allow part of the property to be intended for public use, without it being possible to modify its settings after the project is approved.
In another proposed system, with funding through the Public-Private Partnership, bicycles would have been rented for short trips within the district. This is expected to reduce CCb emissions and motivate the use of non-motorized transport. The shared bicycle system was strategic for the district as its sustainable urban mobility plan identified in daily trips with distances below 7 km.
Public space management strategies were also in the project portfolio. The superblocks development proposed eight superblock pilots that were designed with tactical urbanism strategies in order to modify street sections in favour of pedestrians and cyclists. The concept of these superblocks is to group blocks into another virtual and bigger block (superblock) that concentrates motorized transport in its perimeter. This
The environment through the regulation 77 allows the interior of a superblock to develop their streets with preference for non-motorized transport, which will reduce transit accidents and greenhouse gas emissions (GGE). One superblock and previous and punctual interventions for another seven have already been placed with excellent results in perception and statistics; interventions like parking space recycling, wider sidewalks, parklets, between others.
“Urban Interventions” was the given name by the administration of physical interventions on public space where urban design is the tool for promoting sustainable transport with emphasis on non-motorized transport. Following that premise, defending the pedestrian has been their priority as they are the most vulnerable street’s users. Observations and studies have been held in order to sustain these interventions which in some cases have blocked street accesses completely. In some cases, they have eliminated surface parking from the whole extension of a street. So, the interventions aim to stop subsidizing the usage of private motorized vehicles with citizen’s taxes and compromising public space. These interventions have been also tactical for urbanism.
A similar and complementary strategy was the “urban activations”. In order to enhance tactical urbanism design, different kinds of activities have been placed in these interventions to “activate” the street’s usage, to correct the misconception that public space is only parks and squares. The objective of most of these urban activations is to recover public space for the persons, to stop car invasion of the streets and acknowledge them as public space and consequently use it vibrantly. Paint workshops, concerts, gardening and other activities have been placed under the “+Ciudad” brand (in Spanish, more city); that promotes a better city, a better life quality and better citizens; conscious of the environment and the consequences of their transport options.
As for parking policies, which are an important game changer within the TOD strategies, San Isidro’s administration had three principal policies for surface parking in public space. Parking slots reduction, as a specific policy, had a basis on reducing car dependency as pedestrian urban characteristics were enhanced. Parking slots then were transformed into non-motorized transport area such as wider sidewalks, bicycle parking, tress and benches, among other uses of the street which complemented and agreeable experience in public space. The first sector to have these policies implemented was again the “ZEN” as this area has different public transport services within walking distance, and being so, all public space projects weren’t having in consideration public parking slots for automobiles, with the only exception of RMP (reduced mobility person). Also, this area had been a victim of car-favouritism normative from the first half of the 20th century; from that crime is possible to identify 115 079 parking slots where 21 927 were on the street; evidence that the streets don’t need more cars parked in.
“The street isn’t a garage” was another programme that applied urban normative innovation which allowed the district to implement district
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transit sanctions and the usage of car cranes and an impound lot. Previously, districts weren’t allowed to implement this kind of service and the metropolitan government wasn’t able to oversee the whole urban territory. This service has been a strong deterrent for car drivers who often parked irregularly on the street as infringement wasn’t given and so the punishment for this “misbehaviour” didn’t exist.
Also, a “rotary parking system” was established. Once again, the district municipality competences are limited and they’re not allowed to intervene independently on public parking; the main problem is that the district is not allowed to change the rates, the most important element on parking management. Why this was important? Because public parking slots are limited in the district and even more those which the municipality was able to charge users (there are metropolitan conditions in order to allow charging). The problem? Some users, office workers usually, used these parking slots for their working periods (10 hours on average) and by so denying the proper use of public parking slots: short visits which allow different drivers, commerce and others to benefit fairly.
So, again innovation was present on urban management and the “rotary parking system” was implemented. It consisted simply of allowing only 2 hours of parking in each public slot and if this time was exceeded, the vehicle would be transported to the impound with its proper ticket. This new deterrent allowed 1173 parking slots on the street being multiplied until nine times depending on the place where the strategy was applied. This new use of parking slots had positive effects on small commerce which could receive new sporadic clients.
Bicycle promotion had been also a very important tool for promoting sustainable mobility. According to a JICA report (Japan International Cooperation Agency), between 2005 and 2015, the number of trips made by bicycle increased from 517 to 4716 travels daily (Lima Como Vamos), meaning that the use of bicycles had shown an annually increase of 24.7% in 11 years.
By the year 2016, with the new mobility policies, the use of bicycles began to exponentially grow, surpassing the natural trend of previous years, and setting up a 56.5% difference from 2015, by going from 4716 to 7381 trips. The same behaviour can be seen from the data of 2017, showing that more than 11 550 trips are now made by bicycle, representing 2.2% of the 524 000 trips made in San Isidro each day.
This growth in bicycle use has been complemented with pro-cycling campaigns, as set in the 7th Program of San Isidro’s Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (PMUS). It also includes the “Sustainable Urban Mobility Pact” as a strategy in which more than 50 enterprises with 13 825 employees got involved in an agreement with the local government to encourage sustainable commuting among their employees. Since the arrangement was established, it has brought up more than 450 new bike
The environment through the regulation 79 commuters to San Isidro, which represent an increment from 0.9% to 3.26% between 2015 and 2017.
One of the most active companies in promoting bicycle use, and involved in the agreement, is R.S. An interesting fact is that the rate of bike commuting among R.S. employees grew from 2% to 7% since they committed to the “Sustainable Urban Mobility Pact”. That proves that a positive trend concerning bicycle use among companies can be created when the right stimulus system is put into practice.
Also, cycling and bus routes/stations are integrated in different layers. For cycling, there are numerous parking places for regular bicycles (more than 400) and before the end of 2018, there will be 50 stations of shared bicycle system with 900 bicycle slots. These bicycle places/systems are integrated with the public transport system and “MiBus” system, where both kinds of bicycle slots are placed near bus stations in order to serve as feeders or as last mile travel alternative.
Another mobility strategy, or system in this case, is the MiBus system implemented by the San Isidro’s municipality, an exclusive service for the district commuters which approach and connect them with five sectors. These sectors include intermodal connectivity with the whereabouts of the Interconnected Metropolitan Transportation System: Metropolitano, Corredor Complementario Azul (Arequipa Avenue), Corredor Complementario Rojo (Javier Prado Avenue), Cycle-lane stops in the district of San Isidro and out of it, that communicate to Line l’s LIMA’S METRO stations. Between May 2017 and May 2018, MiBus has provided, on average, 170 daily trips within the district with more than 83 740 passengers.
Thanks to the strategies presented before, the TOD impact and replicability were easy to recognize. The regulations implemented had clear impacts on their first years, even though they should be analysed at least after 10 years. Some of their results are listed below:
i. “Municipal retirement” use for commercial activities Operating License: 23
ii. Exceptional standards for areas with special urban characteristics (ZEN): Operating licenses for parking reduction: nine (seven parking reduction in buildings and two parking lots)
iii. Provisions to promote sustainability in residential areas: 737 housing units (increasing by 82%), 540 parking lots (decreasing the requirement in one-third) and 91 bicycle parking lots (previously not proposed in projects)
From 2012 to 2016, in the application area 15 licenses were issued, and from the regulation’s publication until March 2018, nine licenses were issued (increased 60%).
iv. Public space generation: one approved preliminary project, generating approximately 833.66 m2 of public space. A total of 41
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- (32 L.F + 9 L.E) licenses were granted between operating and building licenses.
San Isidro’s municipality has implemented these land management policies following the standards established by the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima by the Ordinance on Urban Mobility and the national standard approved by DS. No. 022-2016-MVCS, where the regulations on territorial conditioning and sustainable urban development are approved. Similarly, the adjoining districts such as San Borja, Miraflores and Surquillo have been implementing mobility plans with a network of cycleways that allow intermodal connection points for public transport and the non-motorized transport (pedestrian and cyclist slings).
Finally, we have observed the rise of car-sharing modes in the metropolis and of course in San Isidro’s district. As the district policy was to reduce the private car dependency by reducing car’s infrastructure, with emphasis on surface car parking, people had chosen to share rides with friends and family and also by Apps (Uber pool) and informal “collective” services we call “colectivos”. Colectivos is a Spanish word for “collectives” which are drivers that offer transport services in regular private cars. This last option does not represent a solution, but it is an improvement.
A better placement on cycling and public transport infrastructure has also done its job as we see how in the last years non-motorized transport and public transport share have been increasing in the district despite the district’s continuous motorization rate growth as well as in Lima-Callao Metropolis.
Proposals for stakeholder integration: participatory innovation in awareness and change of habits
The tools of the 21st century, such as Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and the capabilities that offer users to access information and exchange experiences between them, allow in the same way the link between different actors, allowing their integration. What is proposed is that stakeholders can have a common objective which should be to raise awareness of the environmental social value of the city and in it. Having identified the basic problem that is the “lack of citizenship” and the “lack of knowledge” about sustainability, resilience and similar/associated terms that should be part of people’s daily lives, we then believe in the need of pedagogical processes for the “change of habits” of the inhabitants of the metropolis, which is generally a polluting/non-concerned/uninformed society.
This section then proposes two platforms/programmes that link different stakeholders to raise awareness of the intrinsic and social value of
The environment through the regulation 81 nature using mobility and urban space as a driver and pedagogical canvas.
Play-City: live on play mode
Play-City is an urban programme (or activation) that uses open space (public space) as a playfield and aims to make “journeys/urban travels” a valuable, amusing activity. By introducing game, this programme aims to enhance the quality of different kinds of transport modes and make them become a pedagogical platform as well.
The first idea to improve mobility (without innovation yet) is to motivate walking as the main complement to the rest of the means of transport (public, automobile). Campaigns to promote walking have been implemented in cities such as Paris (2012) by the “INPES”, being a local and national programme to promote physical activity with a very simple principle: “moving thirty (30) minutes a day is easy”. However, it is found that this is not sufficient for us under the context where average citizens are always in a hurry and/or tired. That is why we are looking to make a proposal that makes urban travels in general an activity with an added value, something motivating, something fun.
The idea evolves then to make the displacements “a game” evoking the concept of “Homo Ludens”. Homo Ludens, “The Player Man”, is a book written in 1938 by Dutch historian, cultural theorist and professor Johan Huizinga. His work deals with the importance of games for society and for culture. Huizinga uses the term “Game Theory” in the book to define the conceptual space where the game takes place. Huizinga suggests that the game is first and a necessary (not enough thought) condition of the generation of culture.
To introduce the game, Huizinga identifies five features that the game must have:
I. Playing is free, it’s actually freedom.
II. Playing is not “ordinary” or “real” life.
III. The game is different from the “ordinary” life, equally for where and for duration.
IV. Playing creates order, it’s order. Play demands absolute and supreme order.
V. Playing is linked to no material interest and cannot obtain any benefit from it.
These statements are conditioned in relation to urban mobility:
I. Mobility is a right, the right to move freely (free is possible only to a certain level such as walking and some non-motorized modes).
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IL Mobility or travel is a daily activity (with the game it is proposed that the activity comes out of the ordinary).
III. Mobility, rather travels, takes a place in time and territory specifically (again, the space/time combination is sought to be removed from the ordinary).
IV. Mobility proposes order (a mobility policy in relation to development plans - Development of Transversal Skills (DOTS)).
V. Mobility has no material interests (directly); however, one benefits from a good travel policy.
Then, by raising the city as a playground, Homo Ludens will find itself in its territory and continue its evolution. The moment when travel, mobility, becomes a game, we will have a different complementary activity that will be far from being a nuisance or lost time. The concept for improving urban mobility is then called “Play-City”.
Imagine, for example, that in our travel we can collect urban “items”, and we collect elements that we will find only in a specific urban space. For example, during a subject’s daily walk, he will find games. If we stick to the idea of collecting urban elements, this person will be aware on his journey until reaching his destination. The walk becomes in that context part of the game in which you need to scroll, awareness, to find those elements. The collection of such elements may be carried out in different ways according to specific urban, social and technological contexts.
As an example, it is proposed the collection of elements of urban art, quoting the artist “SPACE INVADER”, thus being able to “collect” his pieces as the elements of the game in different cities of the world (http:// www.space-invaders.com/home/).
The graffiti labeller “Space Invader”, which is an urban symbol of Paris and Parisians, allows with his work to enhance the proposal of “Play-City”. Its work theme also comes from a video game and this allows the positioning of the “Play-City” image more easily.
The player in this case would aim to collect the “space invaders” that are on the streets of Paris (and other cities). This activity has even long formed specific tourist walks, and so the proposal would be to popularize such activity and structure it as a game. The player on his or her journey, on foot, for example, will identify the “space invaders” and mark their position. In a first stage, this identification can be personal and shared orally with other “players” (citizens). It is projected that players will take photos and in time share them in different digital/social media. The popularity of the game and of the “space invaders” impulse the development of applications (Apps) that allow to capture the mentioned urban art. This step is part of a trend of games on real terrain and/ or with augmented reality using urban space as a playground that can geolocate any activity (as PokemonGo or Ingress). This clearly allows a different recognition of the cities, thus being able to promote certain
The environment through the regulation 83 places. This practice we recognize would be done through “game” and a physical activity such as walking or, in any case, during the activity of urban traveling.
“Urban games” have already been implemented, however, never in the domain of mobility. For example, “the fun theory” with the project “Piano stairs” aims to make people take the regular stairs instead of the automatic stairs, being able to register in the framework of “moving is healthy”, “physical activity”. If such devices are implemented by enrolling them in the context of mobility, it could be mentioned that the “Play-City” would be composed of a network of urban games.
One element for the promotion of “Play-City” would also be the development of Android/IOS applications. The basic idea is also to generate a “role playing game” (RPG) where any individual can locate the games on a virtual database (on a real territory) that changes according to the mobility demands (the presence of a traffic jam on the territory would direct players to another route/place, for example).
Finally, the concept of mobility around “Play-City” is to include an activity, a game, in the daily commutes so that they become entertained destination. These activities should also be changing so that the city can also reinvent itself through such games. An example that is not distant is the urban art that makes the city a great canvas. The urban game of “Play-City” must also be changing like urban (as well as free) artistic expressions so that everyday commuting goes out of the ordinary. The changing location of these games will also contribute to the creation of an urban order that influences mobility while being able to direct urban flows, displacements by positioning the games. For example, motivating motorists to intermodality through interactive routes that make travelling easier for everyone and, secondly, animation and certain productivity according to rhe game is proposed (TED /Jane McGonigal: gaming can make a better world - http://www.voutube.com/watch?v= dElDuBesGYM).
To build the “Play-City”, we propose that it be the institutions of public/urban management (e.g. municipalities) that set the rules of the games, the rules for establishing the games, and that these be manufactured by those with initiatives such as entrepreneurs, citizen awareness societies and so on. If the city encourages citizens to live it, to use it and to travel daily “playing”, it will become more social, allow more encounters and interactions democratize.
PLAN B: rediscover the city without haste
PLAN B is a platform that offers everyday life alternatives consistent with the needs of the environment. Through a virtual space, PLAN B offers life’s alternatives in the city, in the public space, with routes that allow to visit respectful stakeholders regarding nature (sustainable
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traders). It is through kinder routes/journeys that we live a pedagogical process replicable by all and living the city without haste, under the same activity of moving, we are sustainable, and we are an example of resilience.
The identified problem to be addressed is that the inhabitants of Lima do not know the impact of their decisions on the city and on the environment. There is no easy, accessible and fast-consumption information that allows Lima’s untamed inhabitants to be aware of the effects of their daily life on their economy and their own living environment.
The basic goods do not communicate the ecological footprint generated by their production and consumption. This footprint falls on the city, society and the environment, among others. There is little access to this information on an up-to-date basis and it is not available to everyone, making it difficult for people to be aware of the consequences of their habits. Accessing information would allow us to start changing habits or at least to learn about the direct effect of them.
The proposed idea is to create an urban life network on a local scale through a georeferenced and multipurpose App that invites the community and its visitors (neighbours from other districts or tourists) to consume responsibly and make use of spaces in a safe and pleasant way; so urban space and virtual space complement each other as educational elements in sustainable living. The App seeks to group different synergies starting with a network of local and/or responsible companies that integrate a virtual and physical path through tours.
Between the objectives of the platform is to generate citizen awareness, recognizing rules of coexistence to know/rediscover and adopt the district, thus achieving the respect and integration of the public space. People consume territory responsibly. The current fleeting journey is one of the main causes of the inappropriate use of spaces and the little respect for their care and preservation. The lack of pause gives rise to ignorance and makes the territory a “nobody’s space” producing an unrespectful behaviour to the city. We seek to reduce the perception of speed (being able to go slower or faster) generating a route and proposing the conception of “living travel” regardless of the transport mode. Thus, transport stops being just a way of reaching a destination and becomes an attractive activity in itself. The route must be pedagogical through its inhabitants, the traders who operate there and the public space itself aligned with the sustainable message of the municipality. This is how we all make a sustainable district (or another jur-isdiction/territory), with the possibility of implementing behaviours that may be replicable.
The projection aims to have a district where trade, culture and gastronomy emerge. Miraflores as a pilot district in the metropolis is a versatile district par excellence where couples, bohemians, tourists,
The environment through the regulation 85 families, large companies and small producers come, where surfing is practiced and where you dress in high heels and tie. Everyone is invited.
Miraflores is also the fusion of all urban networks: the cultural galleries are linked to the cafes where visitors gather before going to a play. The local stores have reserved products for local restaurants that need fresh items immediately. A book fair is on the most common pedestrian route of people leaving work in direction to the public transport hubs. This route is also a network of people and companies consistent with the environment, and that is where the municipality will be the connection between the individuals and the network. In this way, the municipality will assess the relevance of the offer of services when they prove to be responsible and consistent with the environment. At that time, your product will be exposed to the neighbour and the visiting neighbour through the municipal network, the public space and the virtual network.
The proposal also looks out to link with public objectives as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The direct related ones are:
- 3 Health and welfare: healthy products and services
- 4 Quality education: environmental responsibility
- 7 Affordable and non-polluting energy: non-motorized transport
- 8 Decent work and economic growth: product and service platform
- 11 Sustainable cities and communities: compact, sustainable and intelligent city model
- 12 Responsible production and consumption: network of producers and consumers
- 13 Climate action: project raises sustainability
- 17 Partnerships to achieve the objectives: different actors converge on the platform
The project impacts too on climate change mitigation and adaptation directly on the user, the person. Through the proposal, we seek to raise awareness of the effects of their daily activities on the environment. We also understand that the practice of sustainable living is not necessarily attractive to all, and so we seek through the platform to generate benefits to those who have resilient and environmentally friendly practices. This is achieved by linking actors who offer services and can grant discounts (among other activities) or other attractive elements to citizens.
The proposal seeks to intervene the streets to be an activity in itself: the public space is interactive, playful and pleasant. This results in the adoption of the space by residents and visitors. This appropriation of
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the city will create a bond, which leads people to come to love it as their own, as an extension of their living space.
The creation of axes of life is also an important part of the approach, the alternative of a journey is in itself communication and awareness about the needs of the environment. It is a Route B Plan, avoiding congested and contaminated routes and taking a path where feeling safe is the priority.
This axes would allow activating local commerce as a shop network is not only physically integrated in the district, but also within the Communication App offering sales, promotions and strategic alliances (download an App to get a discount), as a pretext for provide information on the benefits of sustainable and environmentally responsible products.
It’s necessary also to group brands of responsible private companies that generate a sustainable trade that is identifiable by passers-by and by all the people who pass in front of them. This group as a district “Brand” is a recognition that allows to bring together the responsible entities with the environment not only in the virtual space (through the App), but also in the same public space through a plate designated by the “Brand”.
The proposal then allows too to raise people’s sustainability as, by recognizing an alternative ride, they will understand through it in an interactive and communicative way sustainable living choices such as the meaning of bicycle use compared to a car, among several other everyday examples.
It’s mapped also the need of creating an App as an interactive and communicative mean to achieve the activation and recognition of sustainable local commerce. ICTs then are really necessary to recognize and use properly according to the needs of the proposal.
What this proposal offers that allows to differentiate it from similar programmes is a direct link between key players in the city making sustainability a collective and participatory practice. A platform/App that links the private sector, public institutions and citizens offering services and information linked on the web and in the public space. The platform offers services related to municipal interventions/events, thus being a synergy for the benefit of the citizen by offering alternatives of services and sustainable products, all under a framework of citizen pedagogy on the environment.
The greatest risk is that the platform does not find the network of stakeholders needed to position itself in the everyday consumer market. We aim to make it an application/technological necessity once the pedagogical process has been well landed. Another risk is also not to find the stakeholder who catalyses the pedagogical process thinking of local governments today. Nevertheless, this risk is very low as local municipalities, between others, wouldn’t reject a non-cost project which has the same sustainable development objectives.
The environment through the regulation 87
Economic sustainability for the project is important in order to lower the risk. Revenue from the “PlanB” platform comes mainly from advertising and its sponsors. As it is the creation of a stakeholder’s network responsible for the environment, it is stipulated that there is sponsorship by companies and producers that benefit from being part of that “PlanB” network. Likewise, since it is a project/entrepreneurship for the purpose of environmental conservation and promotion of sustainable life, it is also stipulated that financing can be captured by institutions such as Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Corporation Andina de Fomento (CAF), and the Agence Française de Development (AFD), among others.
The targeted market is residents and visitors of the district who own a smartphone. In this way, we target around 330 000 (80 000 residents and 250 000 visitors in the Miraflores case), people who can purchase the App, join the platform and/or be part of the “PlanB” network. This population should be considered a potential for daily consumers.
Measuring the IMPACT of this proposal is also important; therefore, different strategies are adopted too. In the public space, within the route “PlanB” counts are made; in shops/services, income counting is made, and cash flow is also requested. To users, surveys are conducted to evaluate the knowledge and practice of daily sustainability. For institutional indicators, tons of recycled waste, water consumption and electricity consumption should be properly measured.
This project/idea has already a first recognition of the proposal in the course/contest “Sustainable Cities” 2017 organized by the OEA in Miraflores district in collaboration with Southern Scientific University (UCSUR).