A fair trade not certified

It is known that in numerous country organizations of different geographical nature produce and market products and services for the domestic market with large approximations to the 10 global criteria of fair trade (Marcillo, 2016).

216 Cesar Augusto Marcillo Vaca et al.

As mentioned above, the absence of a national certifying entity for fair trade products and the limited financial resources to access to the registration of a membership cause a lack of interest in small producers to work for a guarantee seal within this system. On the other hand, the low promotion and ignorance of consumers regarding this alternative marketing system, based on compliance with the principles of fair trade does not allow real awareness by the people, who demand quality products to satisfy their needs, thinking about their health and common well-being, based on social and environmental responsibility. Despite the great importance, especially of food production, they do not have specific infrastructure for sale in the localities and go to fairs granted by municipalities in public spaces with minimal adequate hygiene, sun protection, rain or wind protection.

Food sovereignty constitutes an emblem for food production defending the multivariety of supply, rescuing products in danger of extinction, sowing and cultivating together with the realities of mother earth, ancestral knowledge and the influence of the moon and the elimination of the use of chemicals (Kiwa, 2012). Their fight is against junk products and fast food; they appeal for traditional food or slow food. In this context, the offer focuses on grains such as quinoa, amaranth and chocho; exotic fruits such as araza, chihualcan, babaco, badea, cocoa and its derivatives; and meat from smaller animals such as guinea pig, rabbit, alpaca and vicuna. The medicine goes to the medicinal plants.

Compliance criteria of fair trade cities and universities

The two cities Quito and Riobamba declared as Latin American fair trade cities have met the six criteria established by the Latin American Fair Trade Coordinator (CLAC). Therefore, actions at the municipal level were articulated and sensitized, and then the declaration of the respective mayors was obtained. The local committees were formed and public purchases of the local organisms of this sector are being fulfilled, although not with the desired effectiveness. Moreover, fair trade campaigns are organized to encourage consumers to purchase these products. Educational entities are slowly incorporated into this movement, especially universities focused on research, education and promotion. A very effective link that is being created constitutes the annual celebrations of World Fair Trade Day.

By 2020, Quito will host the International Meeting of Cities for Fair Trade. The designation is a recognition of the trajectory displayed by the city in favor of a different marketing model. More than 500 representatives of the 2196 cities for fair trade (FAIRTRADE, 2017) accredited throughout the planet will attend the event.

Similarly, the two universities are meeting the criteria that have been self-imposed. Although the validity of these awards for cities and

Fair trade focus of social joint 217 universities is very short. The results are already encouraging that more organizations join and expand the activities of fair trade certification.

Intervention and pending tasks of the public sector and the academy

There are approximately 60 universities operating in Ecuador, and no more than 10 of these have academic links with the solidarity economy and with fair trade, with the exception of the two already mentioned. Tangentially there are research efforts for thesis development, but real involvement is still lacking. In regards to the public sector, the public purchase required from fair trade organizations and the popular solidarity economy an average of 3% to 5% of the annual purchases that must be made from these solidarity organizations. In 2017, 6.5% was registered (Vicepresidencia de la Republica, 2018). The role of training for solidarity ventures has been suggested and is a very strong aspiration for a network to be formed between the public sector. It means that the central administration, local administrations and universities work together in each territory.

Deficit of responsible consumers being ethical, ecological and supportive

Among the greatest challenges is the organization and operation of networks of responsible consumers. It means a stable demand but that will be expanded as awareness increases. Several ideas have been proposed, such as the preparation of campaigns to make fair trade known in schools, colleges, universities and corporate organizations. The emergence of organic groups for fair trade has not yet taken shape.

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