Social Enterprise in Western Europe:Theory, Models and Practice

Documenting SE Diversity (Phase 1 of the ICSEM Project)Country-Based Contributions about the SE LandscapeTransversal and Comparative AnalysesTheorising and Mapping Major SE Models (Phase 2 of the ICSEM Project)Three "Principles of Interest" as a CornerstoneMarket Reliance and the Resource Mix as Key IssuesInstitutional Logics Generating SE ModelsSocial Missions across ModelsTesting SE Models (Phase 3 of the ICSEM Project)NotesReferencesI. National Overviews of Social EnterpriseUnity in Diversity: Exploring the Multiple Facets of the Belgian Social Enterprise LandscapeHistorical RootsThe Associative TraditionThe Cooperative TraditionThe Tradition of MutualsThe Inputs of Public PoliciesPhilanthropy and Social InvestmentA More Business-Oriented ApproachLegal Evolution and Public PoliciesStatistics and Characteristics of Social Enterprise in BelgiumFour Main SE ModelsNumber of Social EnterprisesFields of ActivityEmployment in Social EnterprisesConclusionAcknowledgementsNoteReferencesSocial Enterprise in Denmark: Historical, Contextual and Conceptual AspectsInstitutional Trajectories of Social Enterprise in Denmark: Strong Roots in Social Movements and State FormationFirst Period: Development of the Cooperative SectorSecond Period: Interrelated CrisesThird Period: Emergence and Institutionalisation of Social EnterpriseLegal Forms of Social Enterprise in DenmarkThe Innovative and Entrepreneurial Welfare StateThe Danish Ecosystem of Social EnterpriseSignificant Conception(s) and Practices of Social Enterprise: Five PlatformsConclusionNotesReferencesA New Typology of Social Enterprise in Finland: Capturing the DiversityThe Finnish Context for Social EnterprisesSocial-Economy Organisations in the Finnish Welfare StateEvolution of New Social EnterprisesInstitutionalised and Non-Institutionalised Social EnterprisesNew Typology of Finnish Social Enterprises and Illustrative ExamplesSocial Enterprises Providing Public (welfare) ServicesEmerging Alternative Economic InitiativesImpact Businesses and "Smart-Up"Social-Impact RedistributorsFindingsSocial Value: Input, Output, Process and Profit DistributionComparing Finnish Typology to ICSEM ModelsConclusionAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesSocial Enterprise in France: At the Crossroads of the Social Economy, Solidarity Economy and Social Entrepreneurship?Social Enterprise and the SSE: Historical Overview of Their Institutionalisation ProcessThree Models of Social EnterpriseGeneral-Interest and Multiple-Stakeholder OrganisationsEntrepreneurial AssociationsCommercial Businesses with a Social Purpose and Social EntrepreneursSocial Enterprises: Between Rupture and ContinuityConclusionNotesReferencesSocial Enterprise in Germany: Between Institutional Inertia, Innovation and CooperationThe SE Debate in GermanyDevelopment and Models of "Social Enterprise" in GermanyAssociative Tradition, Charitable Roots and the Development of the Welfare StateCooperative TraditionsMutual TraditionsPhilanthropic TraditionsWork-Inclusion and Work-Integration Social Enterprises (WISEs)Work Inclusion of Persons with DisabilitiesWork Integration for Long-Term Unemployed PersonsFrom Community Action to Neighbourhood and Community EnterprisesBusiness BackgroundPromotion by Public AuthoritiesSocietal Environment for Social Enterprise in GermanyGeneral Socio-Economic InfluencesInstitutional Landscape of the Welfare SystemSocial-Policy EnvironmentCurrent Conceptual Debate in GermanyConclusionNotesReferencesSocial Enterprise in Iceland: The Long Journey Towards a Hybrid Welfare ModelHistorical Roots of Icelandic Social EnterpriseIndustrialisation and Mass Movements at the Turn of the 20th CenturyContinued Importance of Associations in the Developing Icelandic Welfare System in the First Half of the 20th CenturyFrom Informal Relations between the State and NPOs to New Public Management in the Late 20th CenturyIncreasingly Formalised Relations between Third-Sector Organisations and the State in the Aftermath of the 2008 CrisisCategories of Social EnterprisesEntrepreneurial Non-ProfitsPublic-Sector Social EnterprisesSocial CooperativesPolicy, Legal Environment and SupportConclusionNotesReferencesSocial Enterprise in Ireland: State Support Key to the Predominance of Work-Integration Social Enterprise (WISE)Social Enterprise in Irish Academic Discourse—US and European InfluencesSocial Enterprise in Irish Policy DiscourseThe First Two Decades: The 1990s and 2000sEmerging from Recession: A New DefinitionA New National Social Enterprise Policy for Ireland (2019-2022)WISEs: A Typical Operational Model in IrelandLegal Form and Governance StructureSocial Objectives and SustainabilityGoods and Services ProvidedChallenges for WISEsLimitation of the Labour-Market PoolLack of Business and Leadership SkillsUnstable Resource EnvironmentsConclusionsNotesReferencesSocial Enterprise in Italy: A Plurality of Business and Organisational ModelsEvolution of Italian Social EnterprisesThe 1970s: Emergence of a Growing Gap between the Demand for and Supply of Social ServicesThe 1980s: Emergence of an Organised Civic Response to the New NeedsThe 1990s: Recognition of Voluntary Organisations and Social CooperativesThe 2000s: Recognition of Social Enterprises' PluralismResearch Methodology and General ContextSocial CooperativesSocial Enterprises Operating under the Associative FormSocial Enterprises Operating under the Forms of Foundations and Religious InstitutionsLimited-Company Social EnterprisesConclusionNotesReferencesSocial Enterprise in the Netherlands: Between Hope and HypeUnderstanding Concepts and ContextDefinition and Legal StatusThe Debate about Social Enterprise in the NetherlandsHistorical ContextIdentification of SE ModelsMapping the SE SectorSize and Evolution of the SectorAreas of ActivitySize and Legal Form of the InitiativesFailure RateAge of Entrepreneurs and EnterprisesFinancial ResultsImpactSynthetic AnalysisSocial Enterprises' Relations with Public AuthoritiesConclusionNotesReferencesSocial Enterprises in Norway: Models and Institutional TrajectoriesHistorical and Institutional Context for Social Enterprise in NorwayMain SE Models in NorwayInstitutional Trajectories and Future DevelopmentsConclusionNotesReferencesSocial Enterprise in Portugal: Concepts, Contexts and ModelsUnderstanding Concepts and ContextSocial Enterprise in ResearchThe Political Debate About Social EnterpriseOther Related ConceptsGovernmental Programmes and MeasuresSE Models in PortugalThe Entrepreneurial Non-Profit (ENP) ModelThe Work-Integration Social Enterprise (WISE) ModelThe Social-Cooperative (SC) ModelThe Solidarity-Economy Enterprise ModelThe Social-Business ModelConclusionNotesReferencesSocial Enterprise in Spain: From a Diversity of Roots to a Tentative Typology of ModelsUnderstanding Concepts and ContextIdentification of SE ModelsMethodology and Data Collection StrategyResults: Analysis by Fields of Activity and GroupsWork and Social IntegrationEducationSocial and Health ServicesLocal/Rural DevelopmentCultureInternational cooperation/fair tradeFinancial IntermediationSustainable Development/EnergyIdentification of SE ModelsConclusionNotesReferencesSocial Enterprises in Sweden: Intertextual Consensus and Hidden ParadoxesConcepts in (Swedish) ContextHistorical TrajectoryCurrent Context and State of the Art of Social Enterprise in SwedenIdentification of SE modelsWork-Integration Social Enterprises (WISEs)Non-Profit Social EnterprisesSocial-Purpose BusinessesSocietal EntrepreneurshipInstitutional Trajectories of Social Enterprises in SwedenCurrent Explicit Policy MeasuresSocial Enterprises in the Welfare TriangleSocial Enterprise in Sweden: Intertextual Consensus and Hidden ParadoxesConclusionNotesReferencesSocial Enterprise Approaches in SwitzerlandThe Traditional Third-Sector Approach to Social EnterpriseNew Approaches to Social EnterpriseSocial Enterprises as SSE OrganisationsSocial Enterprises as ECG OrganisationsSocial enterprises as Social-Entrepreneurship ActorsChallengesBlurry SE Boundaries and New SynergiesPublic-Policy and Research ContextConclusionNotesReferencesSocial Enterprise in the UK: Models and TrajectoriesDifferent Types of Social EnterpriseIllustrations of British Social Enterprises in Three FieldsWork-Integration Social Enterprises (WISEs)Community BusinessesSocial Enterprises Providing Public ServicesHistory, Policy and ContextUK Concept of Social EnterpriseLegal StructuresUnderstanding the British Context Through the Discourse-Historical Approach-2000: The Construction of an SE "Movement"-2005: Business Solutions to Social Problems-2009: Moving in with the Third Sector-2015: New Government, Same Direction?-2018: A Period of UncertaintyConclusionReferencesII. Comparative Analyses and PerspectivesSocial Enterprises in France, Portugal and Spain: Between Path Dependence and Institutional Creation?An Institutional FrameworkComparative Analysis of Environmental Evolutions: A Long Process of Institutionalisation Leading to Path DependenceModels of Social EnterpriseSocial or General-Interest CooperativesEntrepreneurial Non-Profit OrganisationsWork-integration social enterprisesThe Social-Entrepreneurship ModelConclusionNoteReferencesSocial Enterprise in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands: Where the Old Meets the NewHistorical Roots and DevelopmentsThe Rise of New-Style Social EnterprisesDevelopments in the SE FieldConclusionAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesBetween Coercive and Mimetic Institutional Isomorphism: Social Enterprise and the Universal Scandinavian Welfare StateThe Scandinavian Welfare ModelWelfare Policy Reforms in Scandinavia and their Implications for Social EnterprisesThe Development of Social Enterprise in ScandinaviaSocial Enterprise Between Coercive and Mimetic IsomorphismConclusionNoteReferencesHow Context Shapes the Character of Cooperative Social Enterprises: Insights from Various CountriesTerminological and Methodological ApproachDevelopment of an Analytical FrameworkScreening Process to Identify Distinctive Dimensions and VariantsContextual Factors IdentifiedCSE's Characteristics IdentifiedIdentifying Interactions Between Contextual Factors and CSEs' CharacteristicsOverview of Interactions IdentifiedInterplay Between Social-Economy-Related/Social Policies and CSEs' CharacteristicsInterplay Between Legal Provisions Regulating Cooperatives and Characteristics of CSEsInterplay Between the Availability of Alternative Legal Forms for Social Entrepreneurship and Main Characteristics of CSEConclusionNotesReferencesTesting the Relevance of Major Social Enterprise Models in Western EuropeThe ICSEM Survey and DatabaseA Hierarchical Cluster Analysis to Identify Major SE CategoriesSE Models in Western Europe: Which Profiles and Relevance?Two Clusters Converging Towards an Entrepreneurial Non-Profit SE ModelTwo Clusters Indicating the Existence of a Social-Cooperative SE ModelOne Cluster Indicating the Existence of a Social-Business ModelNo Public or Quasi-Public SE Model?ConclusionNotesReferencesSocial Enterprise and the Welfare State: A Historical PerspectiveSocial Enterprises and their EcosystemsPolicy ImplicationsSynergies and Partnerships AheadReferences
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