Reliability, Maintainability, and Safety for Engineers

BackgroundReliability, maintainability, and safety facts, figures, and examplesTerms and definitionsUseful sources for obtaining information on reliability, maintainability, and safetyScope of the bookProblemsReferencesReliability, maintainability, and safety mathematicsIntroductionArithmetic mean and mean deviationArithmetic meanMean deviationBoolean algebra lawsProbability definition and propertiesMathematical definitionsCumulative distribution functionProbability density functionExpected valueLaplace transform definition and Laplace transforms of common functionsFinal value theorem Laplace transformProbability distributionsExponential distributionRayleigh distributionWeibull distributionBathtub hazard rate curve distributionSolving first-order differential equations with Laplace transformsProblemsReferencesReliability, maintainability, and safety basicsIntroductionBathtub hazard rate curveGeneral reliability formulasFailure (or probability) density functionHazard rate (or time-dependent failure rate) functionGeneral reliability functionMean time to failureReliability networksSeries networkParallel networkk-out-of-m networkStandby systemBridge netzvorkThe importance, purpose, and results of maintainability effortsMaintainability versus reliabilityMaintainability functionsExponential distribution: Maintainability functionRayleigh distribution: Maintainability functionWeibull distribution: Maintainability functionThe role of engineers in regard to safetySafety management principles and organization tasks for product safetyProduct hazard classificationsAccident causation theoriesThe 'Domino' accident-causation theoryThe 'human factors' accident-causation theoryProblemsReferencesMethods for performing reliability, maintainability, and safety analysisIntroductionFault tree analysis (FTA)Failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA)Markov methodCause and effect diagramProbability tree analysisHazard and operability analysis (HAZOP)Technique of operations review (TOR)Job safety analysis (JSA)Interface safety analysis (ISA)ProblemsReferencesReliability managementIntroductionGeneral management reliability program responsibilities and guiding force-related facts for the general management for an effective reliability programA procedure for developing reliability goals and useful guidelines for developing reliability programsReliability and maintainability management-related tasks in the product life cycleConcept and definition phaseAcquisition phaseOperation and maintenance phaseDisposal phaseReliability management documents and toolsReliability manualValue engineeringConfiguration managementCritical path method (CPM)Reliability engineering department responsibilities and a reliability engineer’s tasksPitfalls in reliability program management and useful rules for reliability professionalsProblemsReferencesHuman and mechanical reliabilityIntroductionHuman error occurrence facts and figuresHuman error classifications and causesHuman stress-performance effectiveness and stress factorsHuman performance reliability in continuous time and mean time to human error (MTTHE) measureHuman reliability analysis methodsMarkov methodFault tree analysisMechanical failure modes and general causesSafety factors and safety marginStress–strength interference theory modelingFailure rate modelsPump failure rate modelBrake system failure rate modelFilter failure rate modelProblemsReferencesReliability testing and growthIntroductionReliability test classificationsSuccess testingAccelerated life testingRelationship between the accelerated and normal conditionsAcceleration modelConfidence interval estimates for mean time between failuresReliability growth program and reliability growth process evaluation approachesReliability growth modelsArmy material system analysis activity (AMSHA) modelDuane modelProblemsReferencesMaintainability managementIntroductionMaintainability management functions during the product life cycleMaintainability organization functionsMaintainability program planMaintainability design reviewsMaintainability-associated personnelProblemsReferencesHuman factors in maintainabilityIntroductionGeneral human behaviorsHuman body measurementsHuman sensory capabilitiesSightHearingTouchVisual and auditory warning devices in maintenance activitiesHuman factors formulasCharacter height estimation formulasGlare constant estimationThe decibelLifting load estimationProblemsReferencesMaintainability testing and demonstrationIntroductionMaintainability testing and demonstration planning and control requirementsUseful checklists for maintainability demonstration plans, procedures, and reportsMaintainability test approachesMaintainability testing methodsSteps for performing maintainability demonstrations and evaluating the results and guidelines to avoid pitfalls in maintainability testingProblemsReferencesSafety managementIntroductionPrinciples of safety managementFunctions of safety department, manager, and engineerSteps for developing a safety program plan and managerial-related deficiencies leading to accidentsProduct safety management program and organization tasksSafety performance measures and drawbacks of the standard indexesIndex I: Disabling injury severity rateDisabling injury frequency rateDrawbacks of the standard indexesProblemsReferencesSafety costingIntroductionSafety cost-related facts, figures, and examplesLosses of a company due to an accident involvingits productSafety cost estimation methodsThe Simonds methodThe Heinrich methodThe Wallach methodSafety cost estimation modelsAccident hidden cost estimation modelTotal safety cost estimation modelProduct life cycle safety cost estimation model IProduct life cycle safety cost estimation model IISafety cost performance measurement indexesAverage cost per injury indexAverage injury cost per profit dollar indexAverage injury cost per unit turnover indexProblemsReferencesHuman factors in safetyIntroductionJob stressOccupational stressor's classifications and workplace stress effectsPhysical stress influencing factorsHuman operator's stress-related characteristics and a checklist of stressorsWork site analysis program for human factorsSymptoms of human factors-associated problems in organizations, identification of specific human factors-associated problems, and useful strategies for solving human factors-associated problemsUseful Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ergonomics guidelinesHuman factors-related safety issuesEmployee training and educationProblemsReferencesSoftware and robot safetyIntroductionSoftware hazard causing waysBasic software system safety-related tasks and software quality assurance organization’s role in regard to software safety and software quality assurance organization's role in regard to software safetySoftware safety assurance programSoftware hazard analysis methodsCode walk-throughSoftware sneak circuit analysisSoftware fault tree analysis (SFTA)Proof of correctnessEvent tree analysis (ETA)Robot safety problems and accident typesRobot hazard causesSafety considerations in robot life cycleDesign phaseInstallation phaseProgramming phaseOperation and maintenance phaseRobot safeguard approachesProblemsReferences
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