Coastal Development and Management
The coastal zone represents varied and highly productive ecosystem such as mangrove, coral reefs, see grasses, and sand dunes. The coasts all around the world
FIGURE 1.8 GIS Application in Water Resource Studies.
are fast developing and firm management policies have to be established. For any management of the shore to be effective, it is necessary for the policies to be based on informed decision making. As with any other GIS application, the data involved in creating a coastal GIS database fall into a number of distinct categories (i.e., basic geodetic/planimetric data, topographic data, qualitative and quantitative attribute data, time series data, and metadata). GIS can be applied in order to keep track of a wide range of natural and human-induced changes, including changes in the extent and ecology of coastal areas, analysis of erosion and shoreline changes, assessment of potential and actual flood hazard and damage, ocean water intrusion, silting up of harbors, and the effectiveness and impacts of mitigation efforts such as dredging, monitoring the changes of land use in the coastal hinterlands, in particular the growing urbanisation of the coastal fringe, and monitoring the behavior of oil spillages in coastal environments.
As the utility sector is expanding at a great pace, the importance of GIS mapping has been realized the world over. In the power sector. GIS is playing its role in transmission (assets, plan routes, maintain rights-of-way, track vegetation management), distribution (outage management, customer service, field operations, situational awareness, accounting, planning, network operations) and generation (environmental impact assessment, suitable sites for power generation companies, preparation of baseline data for the project area such as indexing of the consumers), distribution, and important role in preparation of baseline data for the project area such as indexing of the consumers, metering of distribution transformer, feeders, mapping of all the electricity assets, and distribution of network over the entire assigned landscape. Location is fundamental to telecommunication services in mobile and wired telecom networks. Advantages of GIS in the telecom sector are to generate high-resolution 3D building models for accurate planning, mapping, and real-time spatial analysis for new' market opportunities, and reveal ways to maximize operational performance. In the health sector, GIS provides a cost-effective tool for evaluating interventions and policies potentially affecting health outcomes. In the GIS domain, health data is helpful in explaining disease patterns of relationships with social, institutional, technological, and natural environments. In the sector of waste water disposal and management, GIS can help in generating layers for demand modeling, forecasting, source water vulnerability mapping and analysis, water-loss tracking, analysis and management, water conservation management, planning for water reuse, consumption mapping, and analysis. Every day, planners use GIS technology to research, develop, implement, and monitor the progress of their plans. GIS provides administrators, planners, surveyors, and engineers with the tools they need to design and map their neighborhoods and cities. Planners have the technical expertise, administrative savvy, and fiscal understanding to transform a vision of tomorrow into a strategic action plan for today, and they use GIS to facilitate the decision-making process.
Development of spatial analysis tools and technologies makes an easy way to describe, analyze, and predict various problems faced by mankind today. GIS is an important tool of geospatial analysis, which is now widely used in a range of sectors such as in spatial crime mapping, weather forecasting, land suitability analysis, traffic management, mapping health epidemics, crop monitoring, telecommunication. etc. GIS as a tool of spatial analysis continuously evolved from merely just a mapping tool to have unique modeling and analytic techniques such as artificial intelligence, network analysis, surface terrain modeling, digital elevation modeling and autocorrelation, etc. The ability to collect and analyze data in real time brought GIS to a whole new level. With the help of freely available open-source GIS softwares, access to the latest tools and techniques of spatial analysis for public welfare would increase its utility.