Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives

In the end, the authors would like to conclude that microorganisms are generally able to establish antibiotic resistance due to deprived diagnostics, overdose, and incapability of drugs. Microorganisms caused infections are a grave global healthcare issue. Biogenic metallic NPs were designed to tackle these problems and demonstrated a good efficacy against various pathogens, either individually or in combination with antibiotics. However, there are some significant details, which should be considered to use such NPs for therapeutic applications. NPs are active in targeting and distribution in the body if utilized as a drug carrier for the cure of site-specific infections. Due to the antimicrobial functions of metallic NPs, they can be suitable for textiles, food processing, agriculture (nano-fertilizers and nano-pesticides), cosmetics, water treatment, washing machines, computer keyboards, and self-cleaning coatings on mobile phones. For these purposes, however, the biogenic NPs have not yet been commercialized. The main challenge for biogenic NPs is to strike the right balance among applicability, scalability, and cost of development. Therefore, a lot of work will be needed in this respect to concentrate on economic ways of developing biogenic NPs which will make them easily accessible for all kinds of future applications related to either antimicrobial era or another.


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