Sustainable Product Design and Development

DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABILITYPerformance Evaluation of the Economic PillarPerformance Evaluation of the Environmental PillarPerformance Evaluation of the Societal PillarSustainable Product Indicators for the Economic PillarSustainable Product Indicators for the Environmental PillarSustainable Product Indicators for the Societal PillarDEFINITION OF DESIGN ANDTHE ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESSThe Engineering Design ProcessSELECTION OF MATERIALSSELECTION OF MACHINING PROCESSESWHAT IS DESIGN REVIEW?Soft-Hard (S-H) ReviewDESIGNING A PRODUCT FOR FUNCTIONALITYCase Study: Can OpenerGuideline Development for Can OpenerWhat Are the Manufacturing Attributes That Affect Functionality?Development of Linkages to Connect Functionality with ManufacturingFunctionality Evaluation Test: Development of a SurveyDESIGNING A PRODUCT FOR USABILITYGOLDEN RULES OF SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT DESIGNCONCLUSIONREFERENCESEnvironmental LegislationsINTRODUCTIONEXAMPLES OF SOME ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATIONS AROUND THE WORLDEnvironmental Legislation for the State of New YorkEnvironmental Legislation for the State of IllinoisEnvironmental Legislation for the State of VirginiaEnvironmental Legislations in GermanyEnvironmental Legislations in FranceEnvironmental Legislations in EnglandEnvironmental Legislations in the EUEnvironmental Legislations in the NetherlandsWaste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)ROHS DirectiveR2 StandardE Stewards StandardEnvironmental Laws in ChinaProduct Takeback Law in IndiaProduct Takeback Program: Caterpillar RemanProduct Takeback Program: DellProduct Takeback Program: FordProduct Takeback Program: DaimlerKEY TAKEAWAYS FROM STATE LAWS DEALING WITH DISPOSAL OF ELECTRONIC WASTEE-waste Collection Volume Depends on Collection Infrastructure and/or Clearly Documented Collection GoalsManufacturers Often Adhere Strictly to State Laws and Will not do any More than RequiredSome States Whose Laws Cover Cost of Collecting e-Waste Have Higher Collection NumbersGoals for e-Waste Collection Should be Set High and They Should be in the Form of MinimumsManufacturers Seem to Prefer Collection in Urban Areas Over Rural AreasThe Level of Recycling is Enhanced by Bans on LandfillsEnvironmentally Responsible Handling of e-Waste is Ensured by Proactive Decision Making on the Part of the Individual StatesRemember: Despite the Obvious Advantages of Recycling, Reusing a Product is Always Preferable to Recycling itConsumers Would Like to Bring Back "all" Electronic Products not Just a Few Selected OnesProduct Takeback Programs Should be TransparentCONCLUSIONREFERENCESDesign for DisassemblyIMPORTANCE AND DEFINITION OF DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLYDISASSEMBLY PROCESS PLANNINGDESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY GUIDELINESPRODUCT MODULARIZATION FOR DISASSEMBLY: DESIGN APPROACH TO DISASSEMBLYDISASSEMBLY ALGORITHMS AND SEQUENCE PLANS: REACTIVE APPROACH TO DISASSEMBLYUSING PREDETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEMS (PMTS) TO EVALUATE EASE OF DISASSEMBLY: PROACTIVE APPROACHFRAMEWORK OF AN INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLYComputing Disassembly TimeHow Does the Interactive Design for Disassembly System Work?Case StudyHow is a Product Being Designed Based on Current Practice and Literature?Solution in the Form of Design ModificationsDesign Option I, II, IIIAdvantages of the Proposed SystemCONCLUSIONREFERENCESDesigning for AssemblyDEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE OF THE ASSEMBLY PROCESSDEFINITION OF DESIGN FOR ASSEMBLYTYPES OF ASSEMBLY METHODSDIFFERENT MODES OF ASSEMBLY AND DESIGN GUIDELINES TO FACILITATE THEMDesign Guidelines for Manual AssemblyDesign Guidelines for Automatic AssemblyDesign Guidelines for Robotic AssemblyMETHODOLOGIES FOR EVALUATING DFAThe Hitachi Assemblability Evaluation MethodThe Procedure for Design Analysis Using Hitachi Evaluation MethodThe Lucas DfA Evaluation MethodThe Boothroyd Dewhurst DfA MethodA DfA Methodology Based on MTM StandardsCONCLUSIONREFERENCESDesigning for MaintenanceWHAT IS MAINTENANCE?WHAT ARE THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT MAINTAINABILITY?ELEMENTS OF THE MAINTENANCE OPERATIONTYPES OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURESCorrective MaintenancePredictive MaintenanceMaintaining a Degrading SystemAggressive MaintenancePLANNING FOR MAINTENANCE AND ITS MANAGEMENT THROUGH DESIGN REVIEWReviewing Design Specifications at the Initial StageSystem Review before Delving into Detailed DesignSystem Review Post Equipment DesignEvaluation of EquipmentEvaluating the ConceptDevice Performance Index (DPI)Analyzing the Profile of the ParameterAnalysis of ComponentsMODELS USED TO FACILITATE EQUIPMENT DESIGN FOR EASE OF PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCEThe RCA MethodThe Federal Electric MethodDesign Attributes for Enhancing Maintainability of a ProductThe SAE Maintainability StandardLocation (SAE J817)Access (SAE J817)Operation (SAE J817)Miscellaneous Considerations (SAE J817)Frequency Multiplier (SAE J817)The Bretby Maintainability IndexDescription of the Indexof the Index: Accessibilityof the Index: OperationsBretby Index: Other FeaturesUsing the IndexDESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EASE OF MAINTENANCE OF AIR FORCE WEAPON SYSTEMSDesign Requirements for AccessibilityTypes of Access in Order of PreferenceGeneral Design Requirements for Accessing a ComponentShape of AccessLocation of AccessSize of AccessDesign Requirements for HandlesGeneral Requirements When Designing HandlesLocation of HandlesAdditional Use of HandlesDesign Requirements for FastenersGeneral Fastener RequirementsTypes of Fasteners in Order of PreferenceQuick Disconnect DevicesLatches and CatchesCaptive FastenersCombination—Head Bolts and ScrewsRegular ScrewsBolts and NutsInternal Wrenching Screws and BoltsRivetsCONCLUSIONREFERENCESConsideration of Reuse, Recycling and RemanufacturingINTRODUCTIONWHAT IS PRODUCT REUSE?PRODUCT MODULARIZATION FOR EASE OF REUSEWHAT IS RECYCLING?TYPES OF RECYCLINGCOMPONENTS OF A RECYCLING SYSTEMDESIGN FOR RECYCLINGASSESSING RECYCLABILITYMANUAL MATERIAL SEPARATION VERSUS MECHANICAL SEPARATIONDESIGN GUIDELINES FOR MATERIAL SEPARATIONAPPLYING MATERIAL SELECTION GUIDELINES TO DIFFERENT SCENARIOSWHAT IS REMANUFACTURING?COMPARING PRODUCTS THAT HAVE BEEN REMANUFACTURED, RECYCLED, RECONDITIONED AND REPAIREDWHAT TYPE OF PRODUCTS CAN BE REMANUFACTURED?CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR REMANUFACTURING TO BE PROFITABLETYPES OF REMANUFACTURERSGUIDELINES FOR DFREMBENEFITS OF REMANUFACTURINGMETRIC DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING REMANUFACTURABILITYCASE STUDY TO EVALUATE PRODUCT REMANUFACTURABILITYCONCLUSIONREFERENCESCosting for Sustainable Product DesignINTRODUCTIONBASIC DEFINITIONS AND TYPES OF COSTTypes of Indirect CostsMATHEMATICAL MODELS TO PREDICT DEVELOPMENT COSTS FOR VARIOUS END-OF-LIFE OPTIONSRecycling CostRemanufacturing CostRefurbishing CostCONCLUSIONREFERENCES
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