Sustainability of Biomass through Bio-based Chemistry


Biomass and SustainabilityIntroductionWhat Is Sustainability?How the Biomass Could Contribute to the Sustainability?BIOREFINING AS A POSSIBILITY TO OBTAIN ENERGY AND BIOPRODUCTSResourcesEvaluation of ResourcesForestry and Wood Processing WastesAgricultural and Food Processing ResiduesFood ProcessingMunicipal WastesDedicated Crops (Terrestrial and Aquatic)Energy CropsShort-rotation ForestryAquatic CropsEnergy and BioproductsEnergyBiofuelsBioproductsConcluding RemarksReferencesSelectively Transformation of Lignin into Value-added ChemicalsIntroductionStructure of LigninSelective Transformation of LigninPhenolsHydrogenolysisAcidolysisNon-hydrogen Reductive DepolymerizationOther MethodsPhenolic AldehydesCarboxylic AcidsAlkanesArenesOther CompoundsConclusions and OutlookReferencesNanocellulose-based Materials for the Solar Cell, Wearable Sensors, and SupercapacitorsIntroductionNanocelluloseNanocellulose-Based Functional MaterialsNanocellulose-based Films (Nanopaper)Nanocellulose-based HydrogelNanocellulose-based AerogelCellulose Nanopaper for Solar CellsPreparation of the Cellulose NanopaperCharacterization of the Cellulose NanopaperEnhancement of Solar Cell EfficiencyNanocellulose-Based Hydrogel for Strain SensorPreparation of the Nanocellulose-based HydrogelCharacterization of the Nanocellulose-based HydrogelApplication of the Nanocellulose-based Hydrogel for Wearable Strain SensorNanocellulose-based Carbon Aerogel for SupercapacitorPreparation of the Nanocellulose-based Carbon AerogelCharacterization of the Nanocellulose-based Carbon AerogelApplication of the Nanocellulose-based Carbon Aerogel for SupercapacitorConclusionsReferencesHorizons for Future Sustainability: From Trash to Functional Cellulose FibresPaper Wastes: Terminology and Objective DefinitionPaper RecyclingThe Environmental ImpactPaper Waste – What Is It Good For? Why Humanity Needs to Recycle Paper WastePaper Wastes as a Valuable Secondary Raw MaterialBenefits and Downsides of Waste Paper RecyclingRecycling of Waste PaperBackground Information on Waste Paper and Cardboard: Composition of Paper and CardboardDifference between Virgin Fibres and Waste Paper and How to Solve Problems Related to the Complexity of Paper and Paper RecyclingMain Steps in Paper and Board RecyclingWhere Recycled Paper Waste Is Used?PapermakingAs AdsorbentsBioconversion of Paper Waste into Bioethanol, Biogas Other Liquid Biofuels Products, and SugarAgriculture and FarmingOther Areas of ApplicationRecent Novel Pathways in Waste RecyclingAgrowastesFruit and Vegetable WastesCrops, Cereals, Weeds, Grass, Algae Wastes, Bast, and Staple FibresRecycling of Paper Waste for Conversion into Cellulose, Cellulose Derivatives, Cellulose Composites, Nanocellulose, and Nanofibrillated CelluloseCellulose and Cellulose Derivatives Produced from Waste PaperNanocellulose from Wastes and Its FunctionalizationMethods of Production of Nanocellulose and Nanofibrillated CelluloseChemical and Biological TreatmentsMechanical TreatmentsDirect Acid Hydrolysis of Waste PaperCNC and CNF from Waste PaperCellulose-based Aerogels Obtained from Waste PaperSome Successful Examples for Obtaining Hydro- and Aerogels from Waste PaperConclusionsDeclaration of Competing InterestReferencesCellulose Valorization for the Development of Bio-based Functional Materials via Topochemical EngineeringIntroductionTopochemical Engineering on Cellulose by Chemical MoleculesTopochemical Activation of Pulp Fibres before BleachingPhotoactive Fibre Interfaces from Cellulose DerivativesCellulose Fibre Surfaces Modified with Hemicellulose DerivativeCellulose Fibres Functionalized by Biopolyelectrolyte ComplexesPhoto-controlled Fibre-to-Fibre Interactions using Polysaccharide DerivativesFluorescent Cellulose FibresTopochemical Engineering of Cellulose Fibres using Organic–Inorganic HybridsCellulose-layered Double Hydroxides Composite for Pulp UpgradingLDH Bridged Stearic Acid–Cellulose CompositeIN SITU HYBRIDIZATION OF CELLULOSE FIBRES WITH LDHCellulose as Template for 3D Inorganic Clay NanoarchitecturesTopochemical Engineering for Biomass DeconstructionTopochemical Pretreatment of Wood Biomass for Sugar ProductionTopochemical Disassembly Lignin by Hydrotropes in PulpTopochemically Controlled Depolymerization of CelluloseCellulose Dissolution and Regeneration as Cellulose BeadsAnionic Cellulose Beads for Drug Encapsulation and ReleaseLignin-cellulose Bio-composite BeadsConclusionReferencesSustainable Hydrogels from Renewable ResourcesIntroductionPolymers from Renewable ResourcesHydrogels Based on Plant FibresHydrogels Based on Natural PolymersHydrogels Based on CelluloseHydrogels Based on HemicellulosesHydrogels Based on LigninConclusionsAcknowledgementsList of AbbreviationsReferencesProduction of Cellulosic Membranes from Rice Husks for Reverse Osmosis ApplicationsIntroductionTheoretical BackgroundMaterials and MethodsResultsFTIR ResultsPermeation ExperimentsConclusionsReferencesMorphological Aspects of Sustainable HydrogelsIntroductionHydrogelsHydrogels Based on Sustainable Polymers (Cellulose, Hemicellulose, and Lignin)Morphological Assessment of HydrogelsScanning Electron MicroscopyScanning Electron Microscopy in Hydrogels’ EvaluationMorphological Aspects of Hydrogels Based on Sustainable PolymersConclusionsList of abbreviationsReferencesBio-based Stimuli-responsive Hydrogels with Biomedical ApplicationsIntroductionPolysaccharides Sources and PropertiesPolysaccharides from Higher PlantsAlgal PolysaccharidesPolysaccharides from Marine AnimalsPolysaccharides from MicroorganismsBio-based Stimuli Responsive HydrogelsStimuli-Responsive Hydrogels: General ConsiderationsPhysical Stimuli-Responsive HydrogelsChemical Stimuli-Responsive HydrogelsBiological Stimuli-Responsive HydrogelsDual-Responsive HydrogelsBiomedical Applications of Polysaccharide-based Stimuli-responsive HydrogelsStimuli-Responsive Hydrogels in Drug Delivery SystemsThermo-Responsive Hydrogels in Drug DeliverypH-Sensitive Hydrogels in Drug Delivery SystemsStimuli-Responsive Nanogels in Drug Delivery SystemsStimuli-Responsive Hydrogels Based on Polysaccharides in Tissue EngineeringThermo-Responsive Hydrogels in Tissue EngineeringConclusionsAcknowledgementsList of AbbreviationsReferencesCurdlan Derivatives: New Approaches in Synthesis and Their ApplicationsIntroductionStructureChemical ModificationCarboxylationSulfationPhosphorylationOxidationAcetylation and AcylationAminationClick Chemistry of CurdlanGraftingApplications of Curdlan DerivativesBiomedical and Pharmaceutical ApplicationsFood IndustryOther ApplicationsConclusionsReferences
 
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