Post-Production

Post-production is the process of creating finished video programs from the resources gathered during production. We chose to undertake post-production ourselves instead of paying others to produce the video episodes. There were four reasons for this:

1. A desire to extend the budget and produce as many video resources as possible

  • 2. An interest in maintaining control over the content with a mind to producing further variations and edits at a later date
  • 3. An interest in developing video production skills that we might apply to projects in future
  • 4. We had access to hardware sufficient for editing
  • 8.9.1 Episode Format

As mentioned above, we devised a short, episodic format for the videos. By using title cards to frame each question we removed the presence of the interviewer, which allowed us to share the interviewer role without concern for consistency, streamlined the interview recording process and maintained the focus exclusively on the designers being interviewed.

8.9.2 Hardware and Software

We lacked formal training in non-linear editing techniques although we’d created short amateur videos for private and informal teaching uses in the past. This project, however, demanded the use of more advanced features and techniques so we were attempting to master them while using them. This was time-consuming but ultimately satisfying. We relied on a variety of sources for information, including YouTube and lessons available on Lynda.com (now known as Linkedln Learning).

We used available desktop computers for video editing. Editing 4K video demands ample RAM and plentiful storage; however, an expensive computer is not necessary. Post-production was undertaken on a comparatively out-of-date 2013 Apple iMac with 32 GB of RAM and 3 ТВ of internal storage, using 2 ТВ external hard drives for editing and file backup. Project files (21 interviews and 169 discrete video episodes) consume 2.1 ТВ of storage. The use of dual monitors was helpful. High- quality non-linear editing software is readily available - the Adobe Creative Cloud software suite includes Adobe Premier (Adobe, n.d.), and Blackmagic Design (n.p.) offers a free version of their Da Vinci Resolve editor - we adopted Apple Final Cut Pro X (Apple Inc., n.d.) for this project.

Lessons Learnt

Costs of Production: Time and Money

When undertaking projects like this it can be difficult to forecast how long it will take and therefore how much it will cost. Table 8.3 records approximate time in hours for each part of the process.

During our production period we shot between one and five interviews per week, dictated by the availability of our interviewees. It was always easier and faster to shoot on campus, but shooting on location produced more compelling content. Postproduction commenced as soon as we had recorded the first videos and was easily the most time-consuming phase of the project. Due to inexperience, we required

TABLE 8.3

Approximate Time in Hours for Each Stage of the Project (Unless Otherwise Noted Tasks Show Time per Person)

Stage

Hours

Notes

Pre-Production

Project planning, writing questions, budget, staffing (two people)

38

Undertaken over a span of approximately two months

Arranging interviews

1

Per interview

Pilot interview (two people)

2

Testing the format

Production

Shooting on location (videographer, director and interviewer)

3

Including travel time

Shooting on campus (videographer, director and interviewer)

2

Less when interviews could be conducted back to back (rare)

Post-Production

Designing the video style and format

20

Learning to use software

Designing titles and motion graphics

20

Learning to use software

Music

3

Editing per 25-minute interview

6

Varied with interview duration and interviewee

Distribution on YouTube

4

Preparing playlists, uploading, titling, revising

some days of experimenting and learning to master unfamiliar techniques and new software. More experienced editors would likely be much more efficient. Editing speed improved considerably after the first few episodes were produced but time per interview varied. Some interviews were simply longer in duration and some interview subjects required significantly more work to edit. Some interviewees paused often w'hilst speaking or repeated themselves; editing these interviews for brevity was intensely time-consuming. In general, the “tighter” the edit, the more time it took to produce.

Conclusions

We conclude that educational and engaging video production for internal teaching purposes is within range of determined academics should time and modest resources permit. Students respond well to concise video resources, especially when they see them as relevant to their studies. They also don’t require high production values to gain benefit from the material. Although it’s too early to tell, we hope that students feel more connected to the local profession and that future work integrated learning opportunities will flow from the introduction to so many local designers. Should you choose to incorporate this approach into your own teaching practice, please consider the following recommendations:

Pre-Production

  • • Allow at least a month to arrange interviews, and more during holiday periods
  • • Use trained videographers if possible. Our graduate videographers were excellent to work with despite their limited professional experience
  • • Test and refine your interview and filming methodology by conducting test shoots and editing them prior to interviewing your first participants

Production

  • • Use the best cameras you can; however, even high-end smartphones can be effective
  • • Take care with lighting, both in the position of light sources and their colour temperature. For example, a mix of incandescent and fluorescent light sources may lead to unpleasant colour casts that are challenging to rectify in post-production. Use a colour chart to record a few seconds of video on each camera before or after filming to make post-production colour grading easier
  • • Use good-quality microphones to record participants clearly and minimise background noise while filming. Sound recording is harder than it seems. Background noises, such as a doors slamming, squeaking chairs, air conditioning hum and traffic might not be noticed during an interview but become distracting while listening to a recording. Camera microphones capture too much of this noise and it is difficult or time-consuming to remove it in post-production. Record 30 seconds of ambient audio without speech at the end of the interview to provide “room tone” for post-production sound clean-up

Post-Production

  • • Have confidence that you can master basic editing techniques but allow time to learn
  • • Be realistic about time needed for editing - as a rule of thumb, allow ten minutes editing for each minute of final video
  • • Use a computer with plenty of RAM and ample file storage. Ensure you have enough storage and make regular backups of all essential files
  • • Consider the use of YouTube for content distribution and use “unlisted” for content that you wish to keep in-house. YouTube is flexible and familiar to students

Learning Design

  • • Use your own video resources to directly address the learning needs of your students.
  • • Combine short, episodic video resources with classroom discussions and exercises to create engaging and interactive learning experiences

References

Adobe, (n.d.). Video editing that’s always a cut above. [Online]. Retrieved from www.adobe .com/au/products/premiere.html

Apple Inc. (n.d.). The most powerful take ever on postproduction. Retrieved from www.apple .com/au/final-cut-pro/

Blackmagic Design, (n.d.). Da Vinci resolve 16 [Online]. Retrieved from www.blackmagicd esign.com/products/davinciresolve/edit

Chi. M., & Wylie, R. (2014). The ICAP framework: Linking cognitive engagement to active learning outcomes. Educational Psychologist, 49(A), 219-243.

Conceptualizing Socialization in Graduate and Professional Programs. (2001). ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 28(3), 11. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED457710

Cruse, E. (2007). Using education video in the classroom: Theory, research and practice [Online]. Retrieved from http://www.libraryvideo.com/articles/article26.asp

Hansch, A.. Hillers, L., McConachie, K., Newman. C., Schildhauer, C., & Schmidt, P. (2015). Video and Online Learning: Critical Reflections and Findings from the Field. (Technical Report #HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2015-02). Retrieved from https:/ /papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2577882

Mayer. R. (2006). Ten research-based principles of multimedia learning. In O’Neil. H., & Perez, R. (Eds.), Web-Based Learning: Theory, Research, and Practice. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, New York, NY.

Poquet, 0., Lim, L., Mirrahi, N. and Dawson, S. (2018, March). Video and learning: A systematic review (2007-2017). In LAKT8: International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (pp. 151-160) New York: ACM. doi: 10.1145/3170358.3170376.

 
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