Low Carbon Energy Supply Technologies and Systems

A Review of Solar Air HeaterINTRODUCTIONTYPES OF SOLAR AIR HEATERActive Solar Air Heating SystemWorking of an Active Solar Air Heating SystemPassive Solar Air Heating SystemWorking of a Passive SystemMODELINGCONCLUSIONREFERENCESDevelopment of Different Sun-Tracking Systems for Displacement of Solar Concentrator Implanted in TunisiaINTRODUCTION: BACKGROUND AND DRIVING FORCESSOLAR IRRADIATIONS IN TUNISIADESCRIPTION OF SUN-TRACKER SYSTEMSLDR Sun-Tracking SystemFirst Date- and Time-Based Sun-Tracking SystemSecond Date- and Time-Based Sun-Tracking SystemCOMPARATIVE STUDYCONCLUSIONREFERENCESSolar Drying Technology: Sustainable and Low-Carbon Energy TechnologyINTRODUCTIONMARKET POTENTIALWHY DO PERISHABLE PRODUCTS NEED DRYING?PRINCIPLE OF AIR DRYINGDRYING KINETICSDESIGN OF SOLAR DRYERSTunnel DryerIndirect-Type Solar DryerIndirect Forced Convection Solar Dryer with Auxiliary Heating DeviceAir-Conditioner-Assisted Solar DryerHybrid Solar-Biomass DryerEnergy-Storage-Integrated DryerREFERENCESExperimental and Economic Performance of Two Solar Dryer Systems in TunisiaINTRODUCTIONMATERIALS AND METHODSDescription of the SiteDescription of the Indirect Solar DryerDescription of the Solar Greenhouse DryerExperimental ProcedureRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSDrying of Red Peppers in the Solar Greenhouse DryerDrying of Red Peppers in the Indirect Solar DryerCONCLUSIONNOMENCLATUREREFERENCESPerformance Enhancement of Solar PV System by Using Nano CoolantsINTRODUCTIONPARAMETERS AFFECTING NANOFLUID-ASSISTED PHOTOVOLTAIC/THERMAL SYSTEM EFFICIENCYCHALLENGESSCOPE OF FUTURE WORKCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESGlobal Trends of Biofuel Production and Its UtilizationINTRODUCTIONPRODUCTION OF BIOFUELSUTILIZATION OF BIOFUELSELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM BIOFUELSBIOFUELS FOR THE TRANSPORT SECTORCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESBiofuel: An Alternative Fuel for Fossil FuelINTRODUCTIONTYPES OF BIOFUELSBIOFUEL FEEDSTOCKSTHE CONVERSION PROCESS FOR BIOFUELSEthanol Conversion ProcessOther Fuel ConversionsCOMPARISONAPPLICATION OF BIOFUELETHICAL ISSUES FOR BIOFUELCHALLENGES FOR THE FUTUREREFERENCESAlternative Fuel for Transportation: HydrogenINTRODUCTIONHYDROGEN AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUELGENERATION OF HYDROGEN FROM DIFFERENT ROUTESSteam Reforming of Natural Gas (CH4)Cost of CО2 SequestrationCoal GasificationHydrogen Separation from Water: ElectrolysisHYDROGEN STORAGEInitial RequirementDifferent Storage MethodsPressurized Cylinder StorageLiquefied Hydrogen StorageSolid StorageHybrid StorageHydrogen SafetyFUEL CELL- AND HYDROGEN-BASED IC ENGINEREFERENCESFuel Cell Technology-Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel CellINTRODUCTIONCOMPETING TECHNOLOGIESPRINCIPLE OF OPERATIONCONSTRUCTION DETAILSTHERMODYNAMICS OF THE PEM FUEL CELLReversible VoltageFuel Cell EfficiencyEfficiency in Terms of Cell VoltageEffect of Gas Concentration and PressureNernst EquationsEffect of Partial Pressure of HydrogenFuel and Oxidant UtilizationAPPLICATIONSREFERENCESLow Carbon Energy System Role of Fuel Cell TechnologyENERGY ECONOMY AND TRENDS IN FUEL CONSUMPTIONCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCESOilNatural GasCoalNuclear EnergyRENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCESHydropowerSolar EnergyWind EnergyBiomass EnergyGLOBAL ENERGY CRISIS AND SCOPE FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PRODUCTIONRole of Hydrogen in Sustainable Energy GenerationImportance of Fuel Cells for Future Energy EconomyComponents of the Fuel CellTypes of Fuel Cells and Application AreaISSUES WITH THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY AND FUEL CELLSWORLDWIDE IMPLEMENTATION OF FUEL-CELL-BASED SYSTEMS: PERSPECTIVES AND OUTLOOKREFERENCESSolid Oxide Fuel Cells: Opportunities for a Clean Energy FutureINTRODUCTIONSOFC HISTORYCLASSIFICATION OF FUEL CELLSMATHEMATICAL MODELING OF FUEL CELLPOTENTIAL OF A SOFC-BASED HYBRID SYSTEMCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESComprehensive Study of District Heating (DH) in the UK: Techno-Economic Aspects, Policy Support, and TrendsINTRODUCTIONCURRENT STATUS OF DH IN THE UKRanking of UK in Terms of Worldwide DH NetworksThe UK Heating Sector and Associated FuelsDevelopment of DH in the UKCurrent Heat Sources and Storage for DHExamples of DH in Prominent CitiesPOLICIES, REGULATIONS, AND OUTLOOKSustainability and the EU DirectiveUK Policies on DH DevelopmentThe Implications of the UK Carbon PlanThe Implications of the Energy Efficiency StrategyInnovation and AwarenessReducing Waste HeatBetter Heating SourcesThe Implications of Future of HeatingCHP and Waste Industrial Heat UsageExpansion of Heating GridsImproving Building Structures and Having Sustainable Heat SourcesOutlook of Thermal Energy StorageFINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR DH IN THE UKDistributionTransmissionGenerationANALYSIS OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF DH IN THE UKFinancial and Economic ReasonsSocial and Political ReasonsSocial BarriersPolitical BarriersPLANNING TOOLS IN THE UKHeat Roadmap EuropeUK MARKAL ExpansionUK in Demand for Waste Heat UtilizationAEA Industrial Heat Recovery in ScotlandLeeds Heat Planning ToolUniversity of Manchester ToolSheffield DH Expansion ToolTechnologies and Urban Resource NetworksNational Heat MapsEnergy Path—Developed by Energy Technologies InstituteCONCLUSIONSACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCESPotential of the Thermal Energy Storage System in Peak ShavingINTRODUCTIONENERGY DEMANDPEAK SHAVINGImportance of Peak Load ShavingPeak Shaving Using the Energy Storage SystemENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BUILDINGSMETHODS OF INTEGRATING THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE WITH BUILDINGSPCM EncapsulationPCM Used in Walls and CeilingsDISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING USING THERMAL ENERGY STORAGECONCLUSIONREFERENCESComparative Assessment on the Use of Energy Storage in the Building Envelopes: A ReviewINTRODUCTIONClassification of Building EnvelopesRATIONALE FOR ENERGY STORAGE IN THE BUILDING ENVELOPE DESIGNPhase Chance MaterialsCurrent Implementation and Challenges of the Thermal Energy Storage SystemROLE OF ENERGY STORAGE IN THE BUILDING ENVELOPESApplication of PCMs into Building ComponentsPCM-Enhanced Building MaterialsDesign of Various External Walls with PCMPCM in External WallsImpact of PCM Location in External WallsSolar Wall Enhanced with PCMCeilings with PCMPCM-Enhanced RoofWindows with PCMBlinds Integrated with PCMFloors with PCMVentilated Facade or Double-Skin Facades with PCMSUMMARY AND DISCUSSIONCASE STUDIES OF THE PERFORMANCE OF PCM IN BUILDING ENVELOPESCOOL-PHASE Notre Dame School BuildingCOOL-PHASE Owen Building at Sheffield Hallam UniversityNew Ford Retail Car ShowroomSustainable Building Envelope CenterSir John Liang Building Coventry UniversityCONCLUSIONSACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCESPassive and Free Cooling of BuildingsINTRODUCTIONPASSIVE AND FREE COOLING OF BUILDINGSAdaptation of Urban Environment for Efficient Passive and Free Cooling of BuildingsAdaptation of the Buildings for Efficient Passive and Free CoolingDesign of Building EnvelopesTransparent Building Envelope StructuresOpaque Building Envelope StructuresDesign of the Building Interiors for Efficient Passive and Free CoolingWith Respect to the Indoor Thermal ComfortWith Respect to the Accumulation of the Cold in the Building StructuresMODELING OF PASSIVE AND FREE COOLING TECHNIQUESBuoyancy and Wind-Driven Passive Cooling by VentilationFree Cooling by VentilationAdiabatic Free CoolingFREE COOLING BY AIR PRECOOLING BY GROUND HEAT EXCHANGERENERGY NEEDS FOR COOLING OF REFERENCE BUILDINGCONCLUSIONREFERENCESSustainable Timber-Based Building Systems in the Context of Reducing Energy Performance in the Building Use PhaseINTRODUCTIONSELECTED ASPECTS OF TIMBER-BASED BUILDINGS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SUSTAINABILITYBASIC TYPES OF TIMBER-BASED CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMSMassive Log BuildingsModern Massive BuildingsSkeletal StructuresHalf-Timbered BuildingsModern Skeletal Structures—Heavy SkeletonsPillar Systems—Light Wooden Skeletons—Frame StructuresINTERACTIONS AMONG THE TECHNICAL- STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF PANEL WOOD CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE USE PHASEAnalysis MethodologyWood Constructions from Prefabricated PanelsAnalysis of ResultsCONCLUSIONSACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCESDeployment of the Low Carbon Energy Supply Technologies for Sustainable DevelopmentINTRODUCTIONCARBON CAPTURE UTILIZATION AND STORAGEDEPLOYMENT OF LOW-CARBON ENERGY SUPPLY TECHNOLOGIESSolar Photovoltaic TechnologyWind EnergyBioenergy and BiofuelsGeothermal EnergyHydropowerOcean EnergyHydrogen and Fuel CellsSUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONSABBREVIATIONSREFERENCESDevelopment and Application of Phase Change Materials in the Biomedical IndustryINTRODUCTIONBIOMEDICAL PROBLEMSPHASE CHANGE MATERIALS: AN INTRODUCTIONOrganic PCMInorganic PCMEutectic PCMAPPLICATION OF PCM IN VARIOUS FIELDS OF BIOMEDICAL INDUSTRYBuruli UlcersBlood Storage and TransportationSTORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION OF VACCINESPROTECTION OF BIOMEDICAL-SENSITIVE PRODUCTSCOOLING VEST AND SURGICAL DRESSINNOVATIVE PHASE CHANGE MATERIALSCONCLUSIONACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCES
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