Massive Log Buildings
The term “massive structures” is used to refer to constructions whose load-bearing structure is made of solid wood, either solid or cross-sectioned, or bonded to one another according to the product system. Massive structures are characterized by the separation of supporting elements and insulating parts. The carrier is not reduced to the individual supports, as is the case with light wood timber systems. Nowadays, because of the increased demands on thermal protection, solid wood-bearing load- bearing walls are supplemented with thermal insulation layers. The traditional representative is log buildings (Vaverka 2008).
Log buildings belong to the original methods of realization of houses, which are basically all massive wood buildings. The construction of log buildings is based on massive logs (logs), beams, or horizontal stacked (stacked) beams connected by carpentry joints in corners. However, there are also logs with vertical beams or a combination of vertical and horizontal beams (Bflek 2005; Vaverka 2008) (Figure 16.1).
Modern Massive Buildings
Modern solid timber wooden buildings are becoming a current trend that tries to get as close to nature as possible while maintaining a functional and modern
FIGURE 16.1 Massive log buildings. (From Meadowlark Log Homes, (cit.03-07-2019) online: https://meadowlarkloghomes.corn/.)
design. According to Kobl (2011), they have been created by the introduction of new construction systems, also thanks to the industrial manufacturing capabilities of large-scale elements. The structural systems are predominantly composed of solid wood construction elements, or rarely of wood-based panels (e.g., OSB and particle boards), solid or composite cross sections. The main part of these elements is formed by closed, in particular, massive plate cross sections, or so-called box components assembled in planar structural members. These elements always form the main bearing of the system—the so-called supporting core. A characteristic feature of these systems is the carrier system exclusively operating the flat, which uses a reinforcement plate to transfer the load. A common feature is the construction of an additional insulation system on the outside of the structure (Kobl 2011) (Figure 16.2).
FIGURE 16.2 Modern massive buildings. (From Finnish Log Homes Ltd. (cit.03-07-2019) online: www.finnishloghomes.co.uk/.)
The supporting structure of skeletal structures is, according to Vaverka (2008), assembled from rod members that transfer the applied load to the foundation without the interaction of walls or stiffening casing. They have more than 3,000 years of tradition, and from the constructional point of view, they can be used for the construction of frames, columns, and modern skeleton structures (Figure 16.3).
The historical structures of the timbered buildings can be included among the first buildings that have evolved from the historical skeletal system of buildings as the first skeleton system buildings. The architecture of half-timbered buildings has been extended in all regions of Europe, where it was necessary to limit the consumption of wood for construction. An alternative use of rather short deciduous wood elements was also preferred. A large number of timbered buildings, which are still preserved in many historic towns but also in rural areas, are mainly in Central and Eastern Europe but also in the Netherlands, northern Germany, Denmark, and Anglo-Saxon countries. Four- and more-story buildings of this type have been preserved from the past, and multi-story, but also commercial, half-timbered buildings have been shown to have a long tradition in Central Europe. In the territory of present-day Slovakia, such constructions were made in mountain and spa areas (Vaverka 2008; Kobl 2011) (Figure 16.4).
Modern Skeletal Structures—Heavy Skeletons
The influence of American construction methods has been reflected in the construction of the half-timbered buildings by omitting the horizontal and oblique reinforcement elements (struts and rails) with the modern skeletal structures. To preserve the massive elements of the construction, these structures are also called heavy wooden
FIGURE 16.3 Skeletal structures. (From Angies list, (cit.03-07-2019) online: www.angi- eslist.com/articles/house-framing-requires-skilled-contractor.htm.)
FIGURE 16.4 Half-timbered construction. (Half-timbered construction, (cit.03-07-2019) online: www.thoughtco.com/what-is-half-timbered-construction-177664.)
skeletons (HWS). In addition to struts and cross members, horizontal elements (threshold and skid) were excluded from the structure, eliminating the unfavorable planting of the structure caused by volume changes in the transverse direction of the wood. In the case of non-settling of the lower threshold, it is also necessary to provide structural protection of the columns anchored directly on the base in order to avoid degradation of wood due to possible permeable moisture (Stefko et al. 2009; Kobl 2011) (Figure 16.5).
Pillar Systems—Light Wooden Skeletons—Frame Structures
The concept of timber-frame construction is based on the use of posts in the supporting structure. As mentioned in the historical review of columnar structures, they have evolved from timber-framed timber houses in North America and have gradually expanded to Europe, where they have been modified over time to form a variety of systems under the frame structure name. The term “frame structures” does not relate to the static action of the house; rather, it is based on the construction of the individual frame walls of the rectangular shape formed by the lower and upper frame and the vertical posts. Also due to the use of small cross sections of the wicker elements, the name light wood skeleton (LWS) (Vaverka 2008)—has also been used for these buildings in some countries (Figure 16.6).
FIGURE 16.5 Modern skeletal structures—heavy skeletons. (From A Wooden Skeleton in XXL: T3 Office Building in Minneapolis, (cit.03-07-2019) online: www.detail-online.com/ article/a-wooden-skeleton-in-xxl-t3-office-building-in-minneapolis-31385/.)
FIGURE 16.6 Pillar systems—light wooden skeletons. (From Think wood, (cit.03-07-2019) online: www.thinkwood.com/products-and-systerns/light-frame-construction.)