Limitations of bioremediation
Remediation strategies using soil biota show different advantages compared to other treatments in elimination of organic pollutants from environment. Strategies like phytoremediation are self maintained to eliminate pollutants from contaminated site throughout the year. Unlike the above, remediation of pollutants by microbes and animals should be implemented at specific times. Organisms included in the process of bioremediatiou need the suitable environment to degrade the environmental pollutants. Mostly, in situ bioremediatiou using microbes needs the addition of oxygen and chemical fertilizers to the medium containing pollutants, which in turn creates toxic state for other organisms. Other limitations like the results of cost/benefit ratios, i.e., cost versus overall environmental impact do not lead in a very positive direction. The bioremediation process does not degrade all kinds of pollutants and may not give foolproof result in all agrochemicals. The molecules and enzymes involved in this process are partially compound specific and the mechanisms vary from one agrochemical to the other. Hence, proper application of bioremediation technology should be implemented in a very specific and careful manner.
The coordination of different organisms to remove toxicants from ecosystem can make the concept of bioremediation practicable. Micro-organisms like bacteria and fungi degrade the complex molecules by using them in their own metabolism and growth process. Plants and annuals are not only directly involved in this contaminant degradation process but also facilitate microbial degradation. The biodegradation of toxic substances depends on the nature of organisms and the enzymes involved. In spite of several limitations, using living organisms to remove toxicants from soil is an eco-friendly but challenging concept. The recent advancement in science and technology will certainly open rtp new vistas to produce genetically modified organisms with significantly higher remediation efficiency to ensure decontamination of soil.
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