Chiral Organic Pollutants: Monitoring and Characterization in Food and the Environment


SECTION I. Analysis, Fate, and Toxicity of Chiral Pollutantsin the EnvironmentOverview of Chiral Pollutants in the Environment and FoodINTRODUCTIONCHIRAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTSSources of ContaminantsPesticidesPharmaceuticalsPersonal Care ProductsChiral Persistent Organic PollutantsCHIRAL CHEMICALS IN FOODFood AuthenticationFood Additives and ContaminantsRISK ASSESSMENT OF CHIRAL POLLUTANTSOBJECTIVE AND CONTENTS OF THIS BOOKACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCESChiral Inversion of Organic PollutantsINTRODUCTIONCHIRALITY AND CHIRAL INVERSIONIMPLICATIONS OF CHIRAL INVERSION ON ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIORFACTORS INFLUENCING CHIRAL INVERSION IN THE ENVIRONMENTSolvent-Induced Chiral InversionThermal-Induced Chiral InversionPhoto-Induced Chiral InversionBiologically Mediated Chiral InversionCHIRAL INVERSION IN THE ENVIRONMENTDETERMINATION OF CHIRAL INVERSIONFUTURE DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSIONREFERENCESChiral PesticidesINTRODUCTIONCOMMON TYPES OF CHIRAL PESTICIDESPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CHIRAL PESTICIDESENVIRONMENTAL FATE OF CHIRAL PESTICIDESEnantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral PesticidesEnantioselective Biodegradation of Chiral PesticidesEnantioselective Bioaccumulation of Chiral PesticidesEnantiomerizationENANTIOSELECTIVE ACTION OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES ON TARGET ORGANISMSENANTIOSELECTIVE TOXICITY OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES ON NON-TARGET ORGANISMSPRE-CONCENTRATION OF CHIRAL PESTICIDESCHIRAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUESChiral High-Performance Liquid ChromatographyChiral Gas ChromatographyChiral Supercritical Fluid Liquid ChromatographyFUTURE PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGESCONCLUSIONACKNOWLEDGMENTCONFLICTS OF INTERESTREFERENCESAnalysis, Fate, and Toxicity of Chiral Pharmaceuticals in the EnvironmentINTRODUCTIONANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENTSampling and Sample StorageSample PreparationInstrumental Method and Chiral Stationary PhasesSignal Suppression and Method of QuantitationFATE OF CHIRAL PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENTAntidepressantsBeta-BlockersStimulantsAnalgesicsAntibioticsTOXICITY OF CHIRAL PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENTFUTURE PERSPECTIVESREFERENCESChiral Personal Care Products: Occurrence, Fate, and ToxicityINTRODUCTIONREGULATORY CHALLENGES OF PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTSSOURCES AND PATHWAYS OF PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTSAZOLE FUNGICIDESPhysicochemical PropertiesEnvironmental Behavior of Chiral Azole FungicidesToxicitySYNTHETIC MUSKSImplications of Chirality on Synthetic MusksPhysicochemical PropertiesSynthetic Musks in the EnvironmentToxicityORGANIC UV FILTERSPhysicochemical PropertiesOrganic UV Filters in the EnvironmentToxicityCONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE TRENDSREFERENCESChiral Halogenated Organic Contaminants of Emerging ConcernINTRODUCTIONCHIRAL PER- AND POLYFLUOROALKYL SUBSTANCESPhysicochemical Properties of PFASSources and Transport of PFOS in the EnvironmentEnantioselective Occurrence and Fate of PFOSChirality in Perfluorooctane SulfonatesChiral AnalysisEnantioselectivity in the EnvironmentCHIRAL BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTSPhysicochemical Properties of Brominated Flame RetardantsEnantioselective Analysis and Environmental BehaviorCONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONSACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCESPersistent Organic PollutantsTHE STOCKHOLM CONVENTIONCHIRAL POPsDETECTION METHODSCHIRAL SEPARATION,2,5,6,9,10-HEXABROMOCYCLODODECANEDECABROMODIPHENYL ETHERPENTACHLOROBENZENE (PeCB)HEXACHLOROBUTADIENESHORT-CHAIN CHLORINATED PARAFFINSPOLYCHLORINATED NAPHTALENESPFASs (PERFLUOROALKYL SUBSTANCES)POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLSREFERENCESSECTION II. Analysis, Fate, and Toxicity of Chiral Pollutantsin FoodCurrent Trends in Enantioselective Food AnalysisINTRODUCTIONMECHANISM OF ENANTIOSEPARATIONENANTIOSELECTIVE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES USED IN FOOD SCIENCEFOOD SAFETY ASSESSMENTEnantioselective Liquid Chromatography in Food AnalysisEnantioselective Supercritical Fluid Chromatography in Food SafetyEnantioselective Gas Chromatography in Food SafetyEnantioselective Capillary Electrophoresis in Food SafetyFOOD QUALITY CONTROL AND TRACEABILITYEnantioselective Liquid Chromatography in Food QualityEnantioselective Gas Chromatography in Food QualitySolid Phase MicroextractionMultidimensional Gas ChromatographyEnantioselective Electrokinetic Chromatography in Food QualityEnantioselective Capillary Electrophoresis in Food QualityCONCLUSIONREFERENCESOccurrence of Chiral Pesticides in Food and Their Effects on Food Processing and the Health of HumansINTRODUCTIONOCCURRENCE OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES IN FOODFood Products of Plant OriginFood Products of Animal OriginFOOD PROCESSING AND ITS IMPACT ON CHIRAL PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOODHEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH CHIRAL PESTICIDESCHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTSCONCLUSIONAcknowledgmentConflicts of InterestREFERENCESChiral Pharmaceuticals: Source, Human Risk, and Future StudiesINTRODUCTIONCHIRAL PHARMACEUTICALSANALYTICAL ASPECTS FOR DETERMINATION OF CHIRAL PHARMACEUTICALSSOURCES OF PHARMACEUTICALS IN FOOD CHAIN AND UPTAKE PROCESSESSources of Pharmaceuticals for Human Consumption in Food CropsSources of Veterinary Drugs in Food CropsUptake and Translocation of Chiral Pharmaceuticals in Food CropsPlant Uptake ProcessesChemical-Specific Factors Influencing Plant Uptake of PharmaceuticalsStereoselective Uptake, Translocation, and MetabolismStereoselective SorptionENANTIOSELECTIVE OCCURRENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS IN FOOD MATRICESAntibioticsNon-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)Psychoactive DrugsAnthelmintic DrugsOther DrugsHUMAN RISKENANTIOSPECIFIC TOXICITYCONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE CHALLENGESACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCESFood Authenticity and AdulterationAUTHENTICITY AND TRACEABILITYPHENOLSSEAFOODOLIVE OILHONEYFRUIT BEVERAGESDAIRY PRODUCTSESSENTIAL OILSFLAVORSREFERENCESSECTION III. Regulation and Remediation of Chiral PollutantsRegulatory Perspectives and Challenges in Risk Assessment of Chiral PollutantsINTRODUCTIONREGULATION OF CHIRAL CONTAMINANTSTypes of Chemical RegulationsRegulation of Chiral ContaminantsRISK ASSESSMENT OF CHIRAL POLLUTANTSChallenges in Risk AssessmentRecent Advances in Risk AssessmentCASE STUDY: LIMITATIONS OF PBT MODELS IN ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF CHIRAL PHARMACEUTICALSChallenges in Exposure AssessmentChallenges in Toxicity AssessmentFuture PerspectivesCONCLUSIONACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCESSECTION IV. Synthesis and Chiral Switching of Chiral ChemicalsChiral Pesticides: Synthesis, Chiral Switching, and Absolute ConfigurationINTRODUCTIONSYNTHESIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDESCatalytic Asymmetric SynthesisChiron ApproachEnzymatic TransformationMiscellaneous Methods of Synthesizing Chiral PesticidesMOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMERSCHIRAL SWITCHINGABSOLUTE CONFIGURATION OF CHIRAL PESTICIDESX-ray CrystallographyCircular Dichroism SpectroscopyECD SpectroscopyVCD SpectroscopyCHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTSCONCLUSIONACKNOWLEDGMENTCONFLICTS OF INTERESTREFERENCESChiral Pharmaceuticals: Synthesis and Chiral SwitchingINTRODUCTIONCHIRAL SYNTHETIC METHODSChemoenzymatic MethodsChemoselective Drug SynthesisAsymmetric Organometallic CatalysisAsymmetric OrganocatalysisTRENDS IN CHIRAL DRUG DEVELOPMENTCONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONSREFERENCES
 
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