REGULATION OF CHIRAL CONTAMINANTS

Types of Chemical Regulations

For the past five decades, identification of priority pollutants, restricting their use, and monitoring their presence in food and the environment has been a regulatory priority (Gago-Ferrero et al., 2018; Karahan Ozgun et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2012). There are several types of national and international chemical regulations; and these include substance control, pollution mitigation, chemical transport and storage, and chemical inventory regulations as well as international conventions (ECHA, 2017; Grisoni et al., 2016; Lillicrap et al., 2016). Table 12.1 offers brief descriptions of the several types of chemical regulations. It also shows examples of national regulations from USA and China as well as international conventions (Lorgeoux et al.. 2016; Stanley and Brooks, 2009). A chemical regulation can fall under several different categories; for example, the Toxic Substances Control Act of

A vicious cycle demonstrating the implications of ignoring chirality in chemical regulations and risk assessment

FIGURE 12.2 A vicious cycle demonstrating the implications of ignoring chirality in chemical regulations and risk assessment.

2016 contains regulations on control of toxic substances, new chemicals, and chemical inventories (Larsen et al., 2002).

Chemical regulations are sometimes focused primarily on addressing chemical contaminants in a single environmental compartment or commercial product. For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency is involved in enforcing laws and regulations for preventing chemical pollution in the environment. The EPA enforces laws such as the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and Safe Drinking Water Act that aim at protecting coastal environments, the atmosphere, aquatic systems, and drinking water, respectively (Guan et ah, 2012; McCauley et ah, 2000). Human exposure to chemical contaminants is further protected by commercial product specific regulations by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration which is responsible for enforcing the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and Food Quality Protection Act (Calcaterra and D'Acquarica, 2018; U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1992). Many countries have agencies that share the same mandate as the U.S. EPA and U.S. FDA. For example, there is Environment Canada and Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Chinese National Environmental Protection Agency and Chinese National Food and Drug Administration in Canada and China, respectively.

International conventions and regulations often address all the aspects of chemical regulations since they are often used to inform national regulations. In Europe, the Registration. Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) provides recommendations and guidelines for protecting human and environmental health by offering early detection of toxic substances. REACH identifies the biological and physicochemical properties of the chemicals throughout the chemical registration, evaluation, and authorization stages. When problematic chemicals are identified. REACH provides guidelines for restricting the production, distribution, usage, and disposal of the chemicals. REACH currently has regulations on persistent organic pollutants, fertilizer products,

Brief Descriptions and Examples of National and International Chemical Regulations

TABLE 12.1

Chemical

Regulation

Description

Examples

United States

China

International

Conventions

Substance

Control

Guidelines for the production, processing, distribution, use, and disposal of chemicals.

Toxic Substances Control Act of 2016

Provisions on the First Import of Chemicals and the Import and Export of Toxic Chemicals (1994); The Regulations on Safe Management of Hazardous Chemicals (2011); The Measures for Environmental Management of New Chemical Substances

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants; International Convention on the Control of Harmful Antifouling Systems on Ships

Pollution

mitigation

Recommendations for minimizing chemical pollution in the

environment.

Pollution Prevention Act, Pesticide Chemicals Effluent Guidelines

Regulation on Pesticide Administration

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of Ships; The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants; Montreal Guidelines for the Protection of the Marine Environment Against Pollution from Land- Based Sources

Food

contamination

Recommendations for minimizing chemical pollution in food stuffs and packaging.

Federal Food. Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938: Kefauver- Harris Amendments of 1962

Regulations for Implementation of Food Safety Law; GB 2760-2011 Food Safety National Standards for the Usage of Food Additives

The Codex Alimentarius; Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives

Chemical transport and storage

Regulations for the transport and storage of hazardous materials.

Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety

Administration

GB 6944-2012 Classification and code of dangerous goods;

GB 12268-2012 List of dangerous goods

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal; The United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances

Chemical

inventory

Toxic Substances Control Act Inventory'

China Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances in China

Regulated Chemicals Listing (CHEMList);

detergents, explosives, and drug precursors. For example, the Regulation (EC) No 765/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council provided guidelines for monitoring fertilizer products imported from non-EU countries. The regulations had guidelines for the maximum allowable concentrations of inorganic fertilizer ingredients and by-products such as cadmium. For organic pollutants, Regulation (EC) No 850/2004 of 29 April 2004 provided guidelines on persistent organic pollutants. This regulation emphasized eliminating the production and consumption of persistent organic pollutants that are recognized as priority contaminants internationally. The pollution mitigation regulations included restrictions on production, distribution, usage, and disposal of persistent organic pollutants as well as strategies to minimize unintentional release of the chemical during the product life cycle.

 
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