Recommendations and Future Outlook

Table of Contents:

With the rapid industrialization accompanied by the discharge of EPs into the environment, future research needs to focus on:

  • (1) Designing and fabricating new MOFNs with specificity towards certain EPs."
  • (2) Due to their desirable characteristics which are important for adsorption, it is interesting to note that MOFNs have the potential to be a new generation of antidotes to hazardous chemical poisoning in humans and animals.
  • (3) To safeguard human, animal, and aquatic life and the environment, it is important for researchers to perform rigorous nanotoxicity and risk assessment studies of emerging MOFNs before full-scale commercialization. To this effect, researchers could generate Material Safety Data Sheets with potential hazards (health, fire, reactivity, and environmental), and enough information on how to work safely with the product.
  • (4) Governments, especially in developing countries, are encouraged to develop sector-specific regulatory frameworks and legislation which bind manufacturers, importers, and users of MOFN products to ensure safety from the manufacturing line to the market, and disposal.


The application of MOFNs as adsorbents is dependent on their intrinsic properties such as high surface area, architecture, tunable porosity, functionalities, and high crystallinity. The porosity and high specific surface area enable high loading of guest molecules. The metal nodes, organic ligands, and topological configurations of MOFNs are varied. These characteristics can thus be tailored to suit desired applications. Various functional groups can be homogeneously distributed both on the surface and in the pores of MOFNs, which facilitates interaction with molecules to enhance adsorption. The excellent crystallinity confers distinct networks and defined structural information, which is important in investigating the adsorptive mechanisms of pollutants. These exceptional properties of MOFNs allow them to function as supports for the integration of other moieties and materials to form composites for the removal of complex and emerging pollutants. The resulting composites can combine the key features of both components, where MOFNs and the other moieties are synergistic. As a result,

MOFNs have been used to remove a variety of pollutants such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, and REEs from different environmental matrices. With the growth of synthesis technology involving new modification possibilities, the range of MOFNs is likely to increase, and new sorption applications are expected to emerge.


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