Measuring Heavy Metal Contaminants in Cannabis and Hemp


The Importance of Testing Cannabis: An Overview of the Analytical Techniques UsedHow is Cannabis Being Used?Cannabis or Marijuana?The Role of Analytical ChemistrySampling Protocol for Cannabis in the FieldSample Preparation of Cannabis Plant Materials and Cannabis-Derived ProductsHeavy Metals and ICP-MSOrganic Compounds in CannabisPesticidesPotency: CannabinoidsTerpenesMicrobiologyMycotoxinsResidual SolventsDetermination of Origin of Growth of Cannabis Using IRMSBiological Sample Analysis: Forensic ToxicologyThe Determination of THC in the Breath of MotoristsFinal ThoughtsAcknowledgmentsFurther ReadingImportance of Measuring Elemental Contaminants in Cannabis and HempMain Factors for Metal Uptake from SoilLeadMercuryCadmiumArsenicCobaltNickelChromiumVanadiumManganeseOther Elements of ConcernElemental Species/MetalloidsMetallic NanoparticlesState-Based Heavy Metal LimitsPotential of “Real-World” Sources of Elemental Contaminants in CannabisOutdoor Growing SourcesIndoor Growing SourcesManufacturing/Processing SourcesThe Smoking/Inhaling of CannabisTesting ProceduresLaboratory Testing ProtocolsA Word about Hemp RegulationsFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingWhat the Cannabis Industry Can Learn from Pharmaceutical RegulationsElemental Impurities in Pharmaceuticals: A Historical PerspectiveThe Process for ChangeUSP Implementation Process Validation ProceduresToxicity ClassificationHow are PDEs Calculated?Cadmium PDE—Oral ExposureCadmium PDE—Inhalation ExposurePotential Sources of Elemental Impurities in Drug CompoundsFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingAn Overview of ICP Mass SpectrometryPrinciples of OperationPrinciples of Ion FormationIon FormationNatural IsotopesAerosol GenerationDroplet SelectionNebulizersConcentric DesignCross-Flow DesignMicroflow DesignSpray ChambersDouble-Pass Spray ChamberCyclonic Spray ChamberAerosol DilutionFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingPlasma SourceThe Plasma TorchFormation of an ICP DischargeThe Function of the RF GeneratorIonization of the SampleFurther ReadingInterface RegionCapacitive CouplingIon Kinetic EnergyBenefits of a Well-Designed InterfaceFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingIon-Focusing SystemRole of the Ion OpticsDynamics of Ion FlowCommercial Ion Optic DesignsFurther ReadingMass Analyzers: Quadrupole TechnologyQuadrupole TechnologyBasic Principles of OperationQuadrupole Performance CriteriaResolutionAbundance SensitivityBenefit of Good Abundance SensitivityFurther ReadingMass Analyzers: Double-Focusing Magnetic Sector TechnologyMagnetic Sector Mass Spectroscopy: A Historical PerspectiveUse of Magnetic Sector Technology for ICP-MSPrinciples of Operation of Magnetic Sector TechnologyResolving PowerOther Benefits of Magnetic Sector InstrumentsSimultaneous Measurement Approach Using One DetectorFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingMass Analyzers: Time-of-Flight TechnologyBasic Principles of TOF TechnologyCommercial DesignsDifferences between Orthogonal and On-Axis TOFBenefits of TOF Technology for ICP-MSRapid Transient Peak AnalysisImproved PrecisionRapid Data AcquisitionHigh-Speed Multielemental Imaging Using Laser Ablation Coupled with TOF ICP-MSLaser Ablation Laser Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass SpectrometryFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingMass Analyzers: Collision/Reaction Cell and Interface TechnologyBasic Principles of Collision/Reaction CellsDifferent Collision/Reaction Cell ApproachesCollisional Mechanisms Using Nonreactive Gases and Kinetic Energy DiscriminationReaction Mechanisms with Highly Reactive Gases and Discrimination by Selective Bandpass Mass FilteringDynamic Reaction CellLow Mass Cut-Off Collision/Reaction Cell“Triple Quadrupole” Collision/Reaction CellM/S Mode. MS/MS ModeOn-Mass MS/MS ModeMass Shift MS/MS ModeThe Collision/Reaction InterfaceUsing Reaction Mechanisms in a Collision CellThe “Universal” CellDetection Limit ComparisonFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingIon DetectorsChannel Electron MultiplierFaraday CupDiscrete Dynode Electron MultiplierExtending the Dynamic RangeFiltering the Ion BeamUsing Two DetectorsUsing Two Scans with One DetectorUsing One Scan with One DetectorExtending the Dynamic Range Using Pulse-Only ModeSimultaneous Array DetectorsFurther ReadingPeak Measurement ProtocolMeasurement VariablesMeasurement ProtocolOptimization of Measurement ProtocolMultielement Data Quality ObjectivesData Quality Objectives for Single-Particle ICP-MS StudiesFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingMethods of QuantitationQuantitative AnalysisExternal StandardizationStandard AdditionsAddition CalibrationSemiquantitative AnalysisIsotope DilutionIsotope RatiosInternal StandardizationFurther ReadingReview of ICP-MS InterferencesSpectral InterferencesOxides, Hydroxides, Hydrides, and Doubly Charged SpeciesIsobaric InterferencesWays to Compensate for Spectral InterferencesMathematical Correction EquationsCool/Cold Plasma TechnologyCollision/Reaction CellsHigh-Resolution Mass AnalyzersMatrix InterferencesCompensation Using Internal StandardizationSpace Charge-Induced Matrix InterferencesFurther ReadingRoutine MaintenanceSample Introduction SystemPeristaltic Pump TubingNebulizersSpray ChamberPlasma TorchInterface RegionIon OpticsRoughing PumpsAir FiltersOther Components to Be Periodically CheckedThe DetectorTurbomolecular PumpsMass Analyzer and Collision/Reaction CellFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingSampling and Sample Preparation TechniquesSample Preparation Procedures as Described in USP ChapterGrinding Solid SamplesCryogenic GrindingCollecting the SampleTypical Sampling Procedures for CannabisSample DissolutionReasons for Dissolving SamplesDigested Sample WeightsMicrowave Digestion ConsiderationsWhy Use Microwave DigestionChoice of AcidsCommercial Microwave TechnologyDigestion Strategies for CannabisFundamental Principles of Microwave Digestion TechnologySequential SystemsRotor-Based TechnologySingle Reaction Chamber TechnologyNitrogen-Pressurized CapsSampling Procedures for MercuryReagent BlanksFinal ThoughtsReferencesPerformance and Productivity Enhancement TechniquesLaser AblationCommercial Laser Ablation Systems for ICP-MSExcimer LasersBenefits of Laser Ablation for ICP-MSOptimum Laser Design Based on the Application Requirementsnm Laser TechnologyFlow Injection AnalysisElectrothermal Vaporization (ETV)Chilled Spray Chambers and Desolvation DevicesWater-Cooled and Peltier-Cooled Spray ChambersUltrasonic NebulizersSpecialized Microflow Nebulizers with Desolvation TechniquesDirect Injection NebulizersProductivity Enhancing TechniquesFaster Analysis TimesAutomated In-Line Autodilution and Autocalibration SystemsAutomated Sample Identification and Tracking SystemsFurther ReadingCoupling ICP-MS with Chromatographic Separation Techniques for Speciation StudiesHPLC Coupled with ICP-MSChromatographic Separation RequirementsIon Exchange Chromatography (IEC)Reversed-Phase Ion Pair Chromatography (RP-IPC)Column MaterialIsocratic or Gradient ElutionSample Introduction RequirementsOptimization of ICP-MS ParametersCompatibility with Organic SolventsCollision/Reaction Cell or Interface CapabilityOptimization of Peak Measurement ProtocolFull Software Control and IntegrationFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingA Practical Guide to Reducing Errors and Contamination Using Plasma SpectrochemistryUnderstanding Data Accuracy and PrecisionEstimating ErrorTypes of ErrorsStandards and Reference MaterialsUsing Standards and Reference MaterialsCalibration CurvesDynamic Range, Concentration & ErrorLaboratory Sources of Error & ContaminationSources of Laboratory Contamination & ErrorWater QualityReagentsLaboratory Environment and PersonnelGeneral Principles and PracticesFurther ReadingThe Importance of Laboratory Quality AssuranceCommercial Reference MaterialsAlternate Reference MaterialsQuality Assurance ProgramsFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingMeasurement of Elemental Constituents of Cannabis Vaping Liquids and Aerosols by ICP-MSVaping Liquid Solvent: The Nature of the SampleChoice of Liquid Solution ContainersMicrowave Digestion of Vaping OilsLiquid Sample Containers and Aerosol Collection MaterialsVaping Machines and Trapping MaterialsPreparing for AnalysisWhat Analytes Are Appropriate for Regulatory Purposes?ICP-MS InstrumentationIntroduction Systems and OptimizationSingle Quadrupole-Specific Parameters“Triple Quadrupole”-Specific ParametersFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingFundamental Principles, Method Development Optimization and Operational Requirements of ICP-Optical EmissionBasic DefinitionsPrinciples of EmissionAtomic and Ionic EmissionInstrumentationSample IntroductionAerosol GenerationNebulizersSpray ChambersTorchesFore OpticsOptical DesignsDetectorsHistorical PerspectivePhotomultiplier TubesPhotodiode ArraysCharge Transfer DevicesCharge-Coupled DevicesCharge-Injection DevicesAnalytical PerformanceDependence on Environmental Operating ConditionsExhaust RequirementsElectrical RequirementsTemperature and Pressure RequirementsMaintenanceDependence on Plasma Operating ConditionsRF PowerPlasma GasesPump SettingsPlasma Viewing HeightPrecision and AccuracyDetection LimitsLimit of QuantitationBackground Equivalent ConcentrationSensitivityMethod Development ConsiderationsAnalytical Wavelength ConsiderationsInterferencesPhysical InterferencesChemical InterferencesSpectral InterferencesData AcquisitionMethod ValidationFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingAtomic Absorption and Atomic FluorescenceFlame AASAdvantages of FLAASFLAAS Interferences and Their ControlDisadvantages of FLAASGraphite Furnace AASGFAAS Interferences and Their ControlAdvantages of GFAASDisadvantages of GFAASVapor Generation AASAdvantages of Cold Vapor AASDisadvantages of Cold Vapor AASHydride Generation AASAdvantages of Hydride Generation AASDisadvantages of Hydride Generation AASHyphenated TechniquesAtomic FluorescenceAdvantages and Disadvantages of AFSFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingOther Traditional and Emerging Atomic Spectroscopy TechniquesX-Ray FluorescenceXRF Instrumental ConfigurationQuantitation by XRFXRF Detection LimitsSample Preparation for XRFX-Ray DiffractionLaser-Induced Breakdown SpectroscopyLIBS Fundamental PrinciplesLIBS CapabilitiesLIBS Application AreasLIBS Detection CapabilityLIBS on MarsMicrowave-Induced Plasma Optical Emission SpectroscopyBasic Principles of the MP-AES TechnologyBenefits of MP-AESTypical Applications of MP-AESLaser Ablation Laser Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass SpectrometryBasic Principles LALI-TOFMSMatrix EffectsDiffusion and TransportInterferencesTransmission EfficiencyInorganic and Organic AnalysisOperational UseUser InterfacePerformance CapabilitiesFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingWhat Atomic Spectroscopic Technique is Right for Your Lab?Flame Atomic AbsorptionElectrothermal AtomizationHydride/VAPOR Generation AAAtomic FluorescenceRadial ICP-OESAxial ICP-OESICP-MSComparison HighlightsDemands of the Cannabis IndustrySuitability of TechniqueRelationship between LOQ and J-ValueFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingDo You Know What It Costs to Run Your AS System?GasesElectricityConsumablesCost per SampleRunning Costs of Atomic FluorescenceFinal ThoughtsFurther ReadingHow to Select an ICP Mass Spectrometer Some Important Analytical ConsiderationsEvaluation ObjectivesAnalytical PerformanceDetection CapabilityPrecisionIsotope Ratio PrecisionAccuracyDynamic RangeInterference ReductionReduction of Matrix-Induced InterferencesSample ThroughputTransient Signal CapabilitySingle-Particle ICP-MS Transient SignalsUsability AspectsEase of UseRoutine MaintenanceCompatibility with Productivity and Performance Enhancing ToolsInstallation of InstrumentTechnical SupportTrainingReliability IssuesService SupportFinancial ConsiderationsThe Evaluation Process: A SummaryFurther ReadingGlossary of Terms Used in Atomic SpectroscopyInductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) GlossaryInductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) GlossaryAtomic Absorption and Atomic FluorescenceOther Atomic Spectroscopy TechniquesUseful Contact Information
 
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