Background and Rise of Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical devices having the ability to sense and collect data from the user or the world around, later utilizing the data collected in various aspects. The web of the IoT currently contains almost 7 billion devices and is expected to increase to 25 billion by 2025. IoT is a new field of research and its health-related possibilities are currently unacknowledged. One the most important organs of the human body is the heart. Any problem with the heart may lead to various serious outcomes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 18 million deaths around the world every year (that is around 31% deaths of total deaths worldwide) are due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), making it the number one cause of death worldwide.

With the help of the IoT. monitoring and collection of data is very easy and feasible as data can be collected from anyone anywhere, and the sharing of the data is also very cost-effective because it is stored on the cloud. Various data related to CVDs can be collected through a smartphone application or wearable device. Through this data, the device can trigger an alert if the user is exhibiting the same heart pulses as those of patients with CVDs w'hose data is gathered in the cloud through the IoT network of connected devices. Since there is an increase in the number of elderly people and in the number of patients with chronic diseases, the traditional health support systems are demanding a change and it is very encouraging. However, there is a lack of utility as the required facilities are only available in hospitals and are not readily usable by elderly and disabled patients, with the result that they do not satisfy the needs posed by critical conditions. This calls for an advanced thought - pervasive healthcare, providing healthcare support to everyone, everywhere, around the clock, addressing all the challenges effectively. Plenty of pervasive healthcare applications have been introduced in the recent past. Uniyal reviewed existing pervasive healthcare applications, focusing on different living conditions of humans such as elderly people living alone, disabled care support, or support for diseases such as Parkinson’s, heart diseases, and diabetes [19]. All the mentioned pervasive healthcare systems take care of various factors such as real-time monitoring, running incidence detection algorithms, emergency intervention, and patients’ self-management.

IoT in Real-Time Healthcare Applications

1.2.1.1 Wearable Front-End Device

A wearable front-end device is used to collect ECG data from different people and an Al-based algorithm is used to identify failures. This front-end device is a system on a chip (SoC) and is integrated in smart watches. With the help of Bluetooth, the front- end device sends data to a smartphone application.

1.2.1.2 Smartphone Application

An application connected to the SoC device mentioned above is used to display the data, and has a function to show' ECG signals to the user w'hen the alert has been triggered by any irregularities. The safety features include a function to suggest various measures to reduce the irregularities, for instance yoga. Finally, the DATA AND ANALYSIS function collects the data from the SoC and transfers it to a cloud-based storage system where all the algorithms are present and analysis of data occurs. Later, the analysed data is sent to the user with a failure percentage so they may consult doctor if needed.

1.2.1.3 Cloud and Algorithms

With the advancement in cloud storage, storing and accessing data has become easy. This process mainly includes the cleaning, encryption, and analysis of data with algorithms and returning the required results. First of all, when the data being sent to the cloud reveals no useful information, cleaning and compression of data takes place, after w'hich the encryption of data helps to secure the data from leakage or exchange by giving it unique key IDs. This data passes through two segments: through an algorithm and through doctors. Doctors can diagnose these ECG signals from patients using a w'eb application. After the data has been analysed by the doctor and algorithm, it returns to the mobile application and then to the user.”

1.2.1.4 How Does It Work in Real-Time?

The network of devices used as a platform for this study includes a wearable device, w hich analyses the ECG signals in real-time to identify if there is any disturbance in the heartbeat. With the help of a smartphone, the application compares the user’s heart data with the data present in the cloud and triggers the alarm if something seems to be wrong. By using the data collected from the cloud and an Al-based algorithm. further enhancements and analysis of the results can be done.

 
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