Cost Benefit Analysis of Composite Materials and C Capture
The solutions for low C solutions are indeed needed in different industrial applications, for example in petrochemistry, cement, power plants, etc. Recently, the cement industry has drawn great attention to researchers as the industry is a potent source of GHGs because it emits significant CO, emissions during the calcination process as well as capturing CO, as stable calcium carbonate. So far, extensive efforts have been implemented to reduce CO, emissions by the cement industry but lacunae still exist. The synthesis of novel composite material could prove a promising option to reduce the C footprint in the cement industry (Rubin et al., 2015; Cormos and Cormos, 2017). There has been major concern on the cost benefit analysis of C capture technology as most of the technology suffers from non-execution because of its high cost. The cost analysis includes the cost of the raw materials, energy, labor and the process mechanisms involved in it (Azarabadi and Lackner, 2019; Fasihi et ah, 2019; Van der Spek et ah, 2019). On the other hand, the benefit not only includes the monetary profit but also the achievement of the goals of sustainable development and mitigation of pollution problems. Therefore, a cost effective composite material needs to be synthesized followed by application in the industrial sector in order to capture CO, (Kongpanna et ah, 2015; Zohrabian et ah, 2016; Jakobsen et ah, 2017). It has been found that at a carbon price of 50 US dollars per tonne, approximately 200 million tonnes of C would be sequestered annually through afforestation. At a price of 100 US dollars per tonne, an additional 100 million tonnes of C would be sequestered each year (Lubowski et ah, 2006). The best case studied so far is the wet carbonation of the natural silicate olivine, which costs between 50 and 100 US dollars per tonne of CO, stored, and translates into a 30-50% energy penalty.
Conclusions and Future Scope
Carbon sequestration is considered as a vital process occurring in nature in order to minimize the harsh impact of climate change. Geological C sequestration occurs very slowly and measures are yet to be implemented for CO, entrapment in a rock system at field scale at a significant rate. In agroecosystems, the rate of C sequestration was also found not to be at a faster rate but cropping systems and specially cultivated rice ecosystems seemed to be promising for reserving C stock in the soil system. Soil glo- malin protein and microbial exopolysaccharide could be proved as potential adsorbents of C and further studies must be conducted in order to scale up production of these products, followed by application in agroecosystems. Forest ecosystems are treated as a potential C sink and sound policies are further required to manage forest degradation and reforestation programs. A policy like REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) is sound but its implementation strategies need to be refined. Biological C sequestration using algal species has been found promising in sequestering CO, from industrial flue gas. Bioreactor systems have been developed for algae-based C sequestration. The synthesis of different composite materials has been proved to be worthy as these materials are cost effective to some extent, as well offering a great deal in waste management and reuse of the products. The syntheses of the various adsorbents are indeed needed in order to capture CO, efficiently (Cormos and Agachi, 2012). Solid adsorbents including alkali metal oxides, zeolites, silica materials, activated C, porous polymer materials, clays and metal-organic frameworks have been under rigorous experimentation to capture C02. Apart from these, the properties of these adsorbents like stability, regeneration capacity and thermodynamic characteristics are also clarified (Oh et al., 2018). The adsorbents have several advantages and limitations in terms of efficient, cost effective C capture. Therefore, the application and usage of individual adsorbents must be clarified, systematically executing the adsorbents to remove CO, from the flue gases. We conclude that we need to work further to develop promising nanoparticle- and scrubber-based technologies to hasten the rate of C capture in industrial application.
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