Energy Audit of Building Systems: An Engineering Approach


INTRODUCTIONTYPES OF ENERGY AUDITSGENERAL PROCEDURE FOR A DETAILED ENERGY AUDITCOMMON ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURESBuilding EnvelopeElectrical SystemsHVAC SystemsCompressed Air SystemsEnergy Management ControlsIndoor Water ManagementNew TechnologiesCASE STUDYStep 1: Building and Utility Data AnalysisStep 2: On-Site SurveyStep 3: Energy Use Baseline ModelStep 4: Evaluation of Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs)VERIFICATION METHODS OF ENERGY SAVINGSSUMMARYEnergy Sources and Utility Rate StructuresINTRODUCTIONENERGY RESOURCESElectricityOverall Consumption and PriceFuture of US ElectricityUtility Deregulation ImpactNatural GasPetroleum ProductsCoalELECTRICITY RATESCommon Features of Utility RatesBilling DemandPower Factor ClauseRatchet ClauseFuel Cost AdjustmentService LevelBlock Pricing RatesSeasonal Pricing RatesInnovative RatesReal-Time Pricing RatesCase Study of RTP RatesNATURAL GAS RATESUTILITY RATES FOR OTHER ENERGY SOURCESSUMMARYPROBLEMSEconomic AnalysisINTRODUCTIONBASIC CONCEPTSInterest RateINFLATION RATETax RateCash FlowsCOMPOUNDING FACTORSSingle PaymentUniform-Series PaymentECONOMIC EVALUATION METHODS AMONG ALTERNATIVESNet Present WorthRate of ReturnBenefit-Cost RatioPayback PeriodCost of EnergySummary of Economic Analysis MethodsLIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS METHODGENERAL PROCEDURE FOR AN ECONOMIC EVALUATIONFINANCING OPTIONSDirect PurchasingLeasingPerformance ContractingSUMMARYPROBLEMSEnergy Analysis ToolsINTRODUCTIONRATIO-BASED METHODSIntroductionTypes of RatiosExamples of Energy RatiosINVERSE MODELING METHODSSteady-State Inverse ModelsANAGRAM MethodPRISM MethodDynamic ModelsFORWARD MODELING METHODSSteady-State Methods and Degree-Day MethodsBin MethodsDynamic MethodsSUMMARYElectrical SystemsINTRODUCTIONREVIEW OF BASICSAlternating Current SystemsPower Factor ImprovementELECTRICAL MOTORSIntroductionOverview of Electrical MotorsEnergy-Efficient MotorsGeneral DescriptionAdjustable Speed Drives (ASDs)Energy Savings CalculationsMethod 1: Simplified MethodMethod 2: Mechanical Power Rating MethodMethod 3: Field Measurement MethodLIGHTING SYSTEMSIntroductionEnergy-Efficient Lighting SystemsLighting ControlsOccupancy SensorsLight Dimming SystemsEnergy Savings from Daylighting ControlsELECTRICAL APPLIANCESOffice EquipmentResidential AppliancesELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMSIntroductionTransformersElectrical WiresPOWER QUALITYIntroductionTotal Harmonic DistortionSUMMARYPROBLEMSBuilding EnvelopeINTRODUCTIONBASIC HEAT TRANSFER CONCEPTSHeat Transfer from Walls and RoofsInfiltration Heat Loss/GainVariable-Base Decree-Days MethodSIMPLIFIED CALCULATION TOOLS FOR BUILDING ENVELOPE AUDITEstimation of the Energy Use SavingsEstimation of the BLC for the BuildingEstimation of the Degree-DaysFoundation Heat Transfer CalculationsSimplified Calculation Method for Building Foundation Heat Loss/GainCalculation Example No. 1: Basement for a Residential BuildingCalculation Example No. 2: Freezer SlabSELECTED RETROFITS FOR BUILDING ENVELOPEInsulation of Poorly Insulated Building Envelope ComponentsWindow ImprovementsReduction of Air InfiltrationImplementation of Breathing WallsSUMMARYPROBLEMSNOTESSecondary HVAC SystemsINTRODUCTIONTYPES OF SECONDARY HVAC SYSTEMSVENTILATION SYSTEMSVentilation Air IntakeAir FiltersAir-Side EconomizersVENTILATION OF PARKING GARAGESExisting Codes and StandardsGeneral Methodology for Estimating the Ventilation Requirements for Parking GaragesStep 1. Collect Data About Parking GarageStep 2. Estimate CO Generation RateStep 3. Determine the Required Ventilation RateINDOOR TEMPERATURE CONTROLSUPGRADE OF FAN SYSTEMSIntroductionBasic Principles of Fan OperationDuct LeakageDamper LeakageSize AdjustmentHEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMSIntroductionTypes of Heat Recovery SystemsPerformance of Heat Recovery SystemsSimplified Analysis MethodsCOMMON HVAC RETROFIT MEASURESReduction of Outdoor Air VolumeReset Hot or Cold Deck TemperaturesCV to VAV System RetrofitSUMMARYPROBLEMSPrimary Heating and Cooling SystemsINTRODUCTIONHEATING SYSTEMSOverview of Combustion PrinciplesBoiler Configurations and ComponentsBoiler TypesBoiler Firing SystemsBoiler Thermal EfficiencyBoiler Efficiency ImprovementsTune-Up of BoilersHigh-Efficiency BoilersModular BoilersCOOLING SYSTEMSOverview of Cooling PrinciplesTypes of Cooling SystemsRetrofit Measures for Cooling SystemsChiller ReplacementChiller Control ImprovementMultiple ChillersAlternate Cooling SystemsImpact of Oversizing Air-Conditioning SystemsHVAC Systems Design ApproachImpact of AC Sizing on Energy UseWATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMSPumpsPump and System CurvesAnalysis of Water Distribution SystemsSUMMARYPROBLEMSDistributed Energy SystemsINTRODUCTIONCOMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMSTypes of CHP SystemsConventional CHP SystemsPackaged CHP SystemsFuel CellsEvaluation of CHP SystemsEfficiency of CHP SystemsSimplified Analysis of CHP SystemsFinancial Options for CHP SystemsRENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMSPassive Solar SystemsSolar Thermal CollectorsSolar Domestic Hot Water SystemsSolar CombisystemsPhotovoltaic/Thermal CollectorsPhotovoltaic SystemsPV System ConfigurationsAnalysis of PV System PerformancePV System ComponentsPV ArrayBatteriesInvertersConductors and Protective DevicesGrounding ProtectionTHERMAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMSTypes of TES SystemsOperation of TES SystemsControl Strategies of TES SystemsFull StoragePartial StorageOptions for TES Operating Cost ReductionFeasibility Analysis of TES SystemsOperation Improvements of TES SystemsCooling Plant CapacityCooling Load ProfileDISTRICT ENERGY SYSTEMSOverview of DESBenefits of DESTechnologies for HeatingTechnologies for CoolingDES Distribution SystemsDES End-User SystemsSimplified Analysis of DESSUMMARYPROBLEMSEnergy Management Control SystemsINTRODUCTIONBASIC CONTROL PRINCIPLESControl ModesIntelligent Control SystemsTypes of Control SystemsENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSBasic Components of EMCSTypical Functions of EMCSDesign Considerations of EMCSCommunication ProtocolsCONTROL APPLICATIONSDuty Cycling ControlsOutdoor Air Intake ControlsVAV Control Techniques for Economizer SystemsVAV Control Techniques for Systems with a Dedicated Outside Air DuctOther VAV Control TechniquesComparative AnalysisOptimum Start ControlsCooling/Heating Central Plant OptimizationSingle Chiller Control ImprovementControls for Multiple ChillersControls for Multiple BoilersSUMMARYPROBLEMSSmart Building Energy SystemsINTRODUCTIONSMART GRIDSMART BUILDING TECHNOLOGIESBuilding Envelope SystemsDynamic Window SystemsDynamic Opaque SystemsElectrical SystemsLighting SystemsOffice EquipmentAppliancesMechanical SystemsHVAC SystemsWater Heating SystemsSmart ControlsANALYSIS APPROACHESAnalysis of Building Load ProfilesEnergy Efficiency OptimizationDemand Reduction OptimizationEVALUATION OF SMART ENERGY SYSTEMSSwitchable Insulation SystemsSwitchable Insulations for RoofsSwitchable Insulations for WallsTwo-Step ControlsOptimized ControlsSwitchable Insulations for WindowsLighting SystemsLED-Integrated ControlsAdvanced Daylighting ControlsPassive and Active TES SystemsSmart ThermostatsPotential Energy SavingsBenefits for Large-Scale DeploymentCost-Effectiveness AnalysisSUMMARYPROBLEMSWater ManagementINTRODUCTIONINDOOR WATER MANAGEMENTWater-Efficient Plumbing FixturesDomestic Hot Water UsageWater HeatersHot Water Distribution SystemsOUTDOOR WATER MANAGEMENTIrrigation and LandscapingWastewater ReuseSWIMMING POOLSEvaporative LossesImpact of Pool CoversSUMMARYPROBLEMSLarge-Scale Retrofit AnalysisINTRODUCTIONBUILDING STOCK MODELING APPROACHESTop-Down Modeling ApproachesBottom-Up Statistical Modeling MethodsBottom-Up Deterministic Engineering Modeling MethodsBottom-Up Stochastic Engineering Modeling MethodsGENERAL METHODOLOGY FOR LARGE-SCALE RETROFIT ANALYSISMain Building CharacteristicsBuilding Stock ModelCalibration AnalysisEnergy Efficiency AnalysisCASE STUDIESRetrofit of Residential Building StockHousehold PerspectiveGovernment PerspectiveRetrofit of Commercial Building StockRepresentative Office Building ModelsOffice Building Stock ModelEnergy Efficiency MeasuresNet-Zero Energy Building AnalysisOverview of Analysis ResultsSUMMARYPROBLEMSEnergy Productivity AnalysisINTRODUCTIONENERGY PRODUCTIVITY CONCEPTSOverview of Macroeconomic PrinciplesMultiple Benefits of Energy EfficiencyENERGY PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS APPROACHMacroeconomic Analysis for Building SectorAnalysis for Individual BuildingsImpact of Energy Efficiency MeasuresEstimation of Value Added from Energy EfficiencyAPPLICATIONS OF ENERGY PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSISEnergy Retrofit of Individual BuildingsEnergy Retrofit of Building StocksSUMMARYPROBLEMSMethods for Estimating Energy SavingsINTRODUCTIONGENERAL PROCEDUREENERGY SAVINGS ESTIMATION MODELSSimplified Engineering MethodsRegression Analysis ModelsSingle-Variable Regression Analysis ModelsMultivariable Regression Analysis ModelsDynamic ModelsComputer Simulation ModelsAPPLICATIONSUNCERTAINTY ANALYSISSUMMARYAudit ReportsREPORTING GUIDELINESReporting a Walk-Through AuditReporting a Standard AuditCASE STUDY 1: WALK-THROUGH AUDIT OF A RESIDENCEBuilding DescriptionEnergy Efficiency MeasuresEconomic Analysis. RecommendationsCASE STUDY 2: STANDARD AUDIT OF A RESIDENCEArchitectural CharacteristicsUtility AnalysisAir Leakage TestingEnergy ModelingModel CalibrationEnergy Conservation MeasuresConclusions and RecommendationsCASE STUDY 3: AUDIT OF A MUSEUMBuilding DescriptionHVAC SystemsElectrical SystemsWalk-Through AuditUtility Data AnalysisBase-Load DeterminationBuilding Load CharacteristicsOccupant SurveyField Testing and MeasurementsLighting QualitySpace Temperature and Humidity ProfilesThermal ImagingEnergy ModelingBuilding Envelope, Geometry, and Thermal ZonesHVAC ComponentsCalibration of the Energy ModelAnalysis of Energy Conservation Measures. OverviewEnergy Savings EstimationEEM 1: Delamping 30 Percent of LampsEEM 2: Increased Roof InsulationEEM 3: Window ReplacementEEM 4: Occupancy SensorsEEM 5: Premium Efficiency PumpsEEM 6: Improved Fume Hood Controls — Demand-Controlled VentilationEEM 7: Improved Water Fixture EfficiencyEEM 8: Optimized Package of EEMsEconomic AnalysisSUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONSAppendix A: Conversion FactorsAppendix В: Weather Data
 
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