Microfluidics and Bio-MEMS: Devices and Applications


Microfluidic Technologies for Cell Manipulation, Therapeutics, and AnalysisIntroductionMicrofluidic Cell Capture TechniquesMicrodroplet-Based Cell TrappingCell Trapping through Microarray DevicesCell Trapping through Hydrodynamic Systems and MicrovorticesMiscellaneous Techniques for Cell TrappingMicrofluidic Single-Cell Therapy and AnalysisElectroporationMechanoporationOptoporationMicrofluidic Cell Diagnosis and AnalysisCell DiagnosisCell AnalysisDroplet-based analytical techniquesMicrofluidic devices for massively parallel cell analysisMiscellaneous analysis employing microfluidic devicesFuture ProspectsConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesOptical Manipulation of CellsIntroductionPhotodynamic and Electrokinetic PhenomenaDielectrophoresisAC Electro-osmosisElectrothermal EffectOptical TrappingWorking PrincipleConfigurations of Optical TrapsApplications of Optical Trapping in BiologyOptoelectronic TweezersDevice Design, Working Principle, and DevelopmentsApplications of an Optoelectronic TweezerRapid Electrokinetic PatterningSetup and Working PrincipleBiological Applications of REPPatterning, translating, and sortingConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesMicro-Robots/Microswimmers for Biomedical ApplicationsIntroductionPropulsion MechanismMagnetic PropulsionBubble PropulsionBiological PropulsionSelf-ThermophoresisMaterials and Fabrication TechniquesTubular Micro-RobotsRolled-up technologyTemplate synthesisHelical Micro-RobotsFlexible Tail Micro-RobotsJanus Micro-RobotsBiomedical ApplicationsDeliverySurgerySensing and DiagnosisDiscussion and Future ScopeReferencesMicrofluidics in NeuroscienceIntroductionTraditional Microfluidic DevicesCurrent ApproachesCompartmentalized MicrofluidicsSingle-Cell MonitoringCo-culturingTypes of co-culture systemsBlood–brain barrierCo-culturing of neural cellsIntegrated Microfluidic/Microelectrode ArrayHydrogel GradientsApplicationsNeuron Differentiation and PolarityBiochemical GradientsElectrophysiological RecordingsDendritic Signaling and Synapse FormationDevelopmental Study at Cell Population/Tissue/Organ-on-a-Chip (Brain-on-a-Chip) LevelNeurodegenerative StudiesFuture ProspectsSummaryReferencesVascularized Microfluidic Organ on a Chip and Its ApplicationsIntroductionIn vitro Vascularization StrategiesEC Lining–Based MethodsVasculogenesis- and Angiogenesis-Based MethodsVascular-Inducing FactorsBiomechanical FactorsExtracellular (or Diffusible) Signaling MoleculesCell Source and Cell–Cell InteractionSelective Vascular BarrierApplication of Engineered Microvascular Networks to Cancer BiologyTumor AngiogenesisTumor IntravasationTumor ExtravasationTumor MicroenvironmentApplication of Vascularized Tumor on a ChipAnticancer drug screeningDifferent tumor therapiesConclusions and Future PerspectivesAcknowledgmentsReferencesDNA Gene Microarray Biochip and ApplicationsIntroductionCombining Nanotechnology’s BiochipsSimulation of the Injection Performance of a Single-Channel Injection ChamberExperiment and ResultsConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesMicroneedles: Current Trends and ApplicationsIntroductionHistory of MicroneedlesMechanism of Drug Delivery via MicroneedlesTypes of MicroneedlesSolid MicroneedlesHollow MicroneedlesPolymer MicroneedlesDissolving microneedlesBiodegradable polymersSwellable polymersMicroneedle Material and Its PropertiesMicroneedle Patch Design Parameters and EvaluationApplications of MicroneedlesDelivery to the SkinCosmetologyMicroneedles for Ocular Drug DeliveryInsulin DeliveryOral and Gastrointestinal Drug DeliveryProtein and Vaccine DeliveryMiscellaneous ApplicationsDrawbacks of MicroneedlesFuture ScopeSummaryAcknowledgmentsReferencesMicrofluidic Electroporation and ApplicationsIntroductionBrief Overview of ElectroporationRecent Advancement in ElectroporationRecent Advancements in Single-Cell ElectroporationSingle-Cell Trapping and ElectroporationMicro-/Nanochannel-Based Single-Cell ElectroporationMagnetoelectroporationOptoelectronic Tweezer for ElectroporationWaveguide-Based ElectroporationMicrocavity-Based ElectroporationElectrofusionApplicationsLimitations and Future DirectionsConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesElectrical Cell Lysis on Microfluidic DevicesCell Membrane and Electrical LysisMechanism of Pore Formation and Electrical LysisTheoriesTransmembrane Potential and Pore FormationTransition States and DynamicsMicrofluidic Devices for On-Chip Electrical LysisOn-Chip Electrical LysisMicrochannel and Electrode GeometryElectrical Lysis Parameters and ConsiderationsEL-Associated PhenomenaOn-Chip Electrical Lysis ApplicationsSummaryReferencesMicrofluidics-Based Metallic Nanoparticle Synthesis and ApplicationsIntroductionNanoparticle FormationMetallic NanomaterialsMicrofluidicsSingle-Phase MicrofluidicsMultiphase MicrofluidicsMicrofluidic Devices for Metallic Nanoparticle SynthesisContinuous-Flow MicrofluidicsSegmented-Flow MicrofluidicsMixing Strategies in MicrofluidicsControlling Parameters in Metallic Nanoparticle SynthesisSynthesis of Gold NanoparticlesSynthesis of Silver NanoparticlesSynthesis of Other Metallic Nanoparticles for Biomedical ApplicationsBiomedical ApplicationsBioimagingBiosensingPhotothermal TherapyFuture ProspectsConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesMicrofluidic Particle Separation and Biomedical ApplicationsIntroductionTheory and MechanismFlow ResistanceMaterials and MethodsFlow Streamlines SimulationMicroparticle Separation SimulationMicroparticle Separation TechniqueResults and DiscussionsSeparation of Polystyrene MicrobeadsSeparation of Polydisperse SamplesConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferences
 
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