ANTIOSTEOPOROSIS ACTIVITY

Osteoporosis (skeletal disorder) is mainly recognized by a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) that causes higher risks of fractures in bones [8]. Cases of osteoporosis are more frequent in females compared to males [142]. For example, the male has higher (30-50%) bone mass compared to female at their skeletal maturity [106]; and with the passage of age, reduction in BMD is more prominent in female compared to male [130].

In the lab-scale experiment, extract (rich in minerals) from marine red algae (Lithothammon calcareum) has successfully improved the bone strength and increased the mineral content in female mice on a Western-diet [6, 42]. However, extensive research is needed on marine algae to identify the specific mineral to improve bone structure and function. The extract (Aquamin (GRAS 000028)) obtained from marine algae is now available in the form of a food supplement. This is used in many products made for human use in developed countries.

It was reported that treatment of osteoclastogenesis with 2.5M fucoxanthin also produced apoptosis along with caspase-3 activation in osteoclast-like cells in aged females. In vitro studies showed that consumption of fucoxanthin reduces the chances of osteoclastogenesis through suppressing of differentiation process of osteoclast and its intake also induces the apoptosis process in osteoclasts [26]. Therefore, the ingestion of fucoxanthin in the diet may inhibit osteoclastogenesis. To prevent bone-related disorders, marine algae can be the efficient source for the development of pharmaceutical products and functional foods. Furthermore, it is extremely vital to assess other marine algae species for the control and inhibition of osteoporosis in females.

ANTI-OBESITY ACTIVITY

Excess of body weight in the form of fat is known as obesity [73, 128]. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the reasons of obesity [60]. It may arise due to diabetes mellitus (type-II), heart-related maladies, cancer, and breathing disorders [82]. In developed countries, obesity is continuously increasing especially in teens and senior-females [68]. Many studies revealed that obesity has a detrimental effect on the female reproductive system [121].

Social norms and mass media influence continuously pressurizing young females to be thin. This dilemma has resulted in disappointment, ingestion disturbances, downheartedness, and anxiety among females [151]. For a reduction in weight (desire to be thin), numerous groups of natural and artificial drugs as anti-obesity agents are frequently being used by females to decrease body fat. Numerous side effects have been identified associated with synthetic anti-obesity agents. They may cause unacceptable tachycardia, hypertension, may improve lipid blood levels/ glucose metabolism/ female reproductive system disturbances, etc. [7].

It is evident from research studies that oxidative stress is associated with obesity, which can reduce life expectancy and increase health issues [95,

176]. Various tools have been developed for the identification of symptoms of obesity, such as waist to hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) (Table 6.6).

TABLE 6.6 International Classification of Adult Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity According to Body Mass Index

Categories

BMI, kg/m:

Categories

BMI, kg/ur

Underweight

< 18.5

Obesity type-I

30.0-34.9

Normal weight

18.5-24.9

Obesity type-II

35.0-39.9

Overweight

25.0-29.0

Obesity type-III

>40

Obesity

>30

Many investigators found that obesity can be decreased with the consumption of soluble dietary fibers. Marine algae are rich in soluble and insoluble dietaiy fibers [78]. Eisenia bicyclis (Arame) is a rich source of dietary fiber, having almost 50% soluble dietaiy fiber compared to 40% of insoluble fiber in brown algae species (F. vesiculosus) [135]. These two types of dietaiy fibers have a different fate in the human digestive system thus behaving differently. Soluble dietaiy fiber (carrageenan agar) obtained from marine algae cause hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects in the human body [116]. In another study, it was shown that alginates dietaiy fiber improves appetite and energy-intake by using an acute feeding model. Alginate reacts with gastric acid (acid-soluble calcium source) after consumption, which resultantly forms ionic gelation and ultimately alginate help to sluggish stomach emptying process.

Stimulation of gastric stretch receptors, intestinal nutrient uptake reduction, and glycaemic response stimulation are associated with the intake of alginate [28]. In oveiweight females, the intake of calcium-gelled alginate- pectin two times daily caused reduction in spontaneous food intake [119]. On the other hand, insoluble dietaiy fiber (such as cellulose, xylans, mannans) are strongly associated with effects, such as increase in fecal bulk, excretion of bile acids, and reduced intestinal transit time [14].

White adipose tissues (WAT) can be reduced through the consumption of fucoxanthin. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in obese KKAy mice was also reported by Maeda et al. [87] by dietaiy intake of fucoxanthin. In fact, C-70 is the position of unusual double bonds in fucoxanthin that is the main reason for weight reduction from WAT [96]. Mammals contain a significant amount of WAT (called “fat” in mammals) [163]. Higher release of adipokines associated with pro-inflammatory features and chemokines has been associated with WAT [25]. These substances play a significant role in the onset of weight gain [163]. Therefore, weight reduction by reducing fat in WAT through consumption of fucoxanthin in female mice was a useful and efficient anti-obesity candidate.

l-(30,50-dihydroxyphenoxy)-7-(200,400,6-trihydroxyphenoxy)- 2,4,9-trihydroxydibenzo-1,4-dioxin, and Dioxinodehydroeckol (two

phloroglucinol derivatives isolated from Ecklotiia cava) have remarkably attenuated adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, which suggest that these compounds have great potential as functional ingredient in obesity- related issues.

Moreover, clinical trials evidently revealed the anti-obesity effect of xanthigen, which is an anti-obesity supplement containing fucoxanthin in addition, pomegranate seed oil. In obese non-diabetic women, xanthigen endorsed weight loss, attenuated body, and liver fat content, and enhanced liver function tests [1].

Intake of fucoxanthin together with NPs (natural products) may reduce or prevent the obesity in females. They also stimulate lipid metabolism in adipose tissues. Number of advantages is associated with fucoxanthin derived from marine algae due to relatively low production cost, low cytotoxicity, safety, and wide acceptability. Moreover, NPs (natural products, e.g., fucoxanthin) from marine algae has more potential and it is a favorable food supplement, slimming agent, and supplement in the inhibition and managing the obesity in the female.

In view of these results, it is concluded that marine algae are efficient sources of functional foods with health benefits, particularly for obesity. Consequently, extracts obtained from marine algae would be natural sources and it can give rise to functional foods and medicinal products to reduce the one set of obesity.

 
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