ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY

The ratio of prevalence of Diabetes meUitus is collectively increased with an increase in obesity and age. There are >150 million persons in the world suffering with it and this will expand to 300 million in 2025 [69]. Worldwide, the number of patients with type-II diabetes (T2D) siupasses 90% of all patients with diabetic conditions [159]. Research for novel anti-diabetic chugs to complement those under clinical trials has intensified over the years [3].

The a-Glucosidase activity is prohibited through callyspongynic acid (also known as polyacetylenic acid) that is derived from sponge Cally- spongia truncate [103]. To prevent the glycogen hydrolysis, a-Glucosidase is interfaced within the mechanism because it is responsible to keep the concentration of glucose in the blood at a desirable low level [181]. Another polybromodiphenyl ether compound isolated from Indonesian marine sponge (Lamellodysidea herbacea) inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase IB (an important target for diabetes treatment) [166]. Marine omega-3 FAs show beneficial effects on the prevention of T2D in the Asian population, which suggests an association between consumption of fish or fish oil and the development of Type-2 diabetes on geographical location [183].

SKIN WHITENING ACTIVITY

Skin whitening products mostly hold tyrosinase inhibition [169]; and this enzyme catalyzes the rate limiting step in skin pigmentation process, therefore it facilitates to achieve the skin hypo-pigmentation. Several tyrosinase inhibitors have been investigated via in vitro studies to reduce skin whitening but only few showed promising effects in clinical trials. The potential marine organisms with skin whitening effects are particularly based on tyrosinase inhibitor enzyme.

Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural and safe sources have drawn attention among the scientific community [150]. Chaetal. [19] studied forty-three native marine algae for then tyrosinase restricting effects. Urey showed that extracts of Ecklonia cava and Sargassum silquastrum show exceptional inhibitory effects on the pigmentation process of zebrafish. hr a study on effects of Fuco- xanthin (from Laminaria japonica) on melanogenesis in UVB-irradiated mice, the tyrosinase activity was reduced. Dietary intake of fucoxanthin predominantly decreased the skin nrRNA expression, which is directly associated with melanogenesis. Therefore, it was suggested that the melanogenesis factor was negatively regulated by fucoxanthin at the transcriptional level [146].

Fucoxanthin and astaxanthin together have photoprotective characteristics in fibroblast cells of humans through inhibition of DNA damage along with the enhancement of antioxidant activity [52]. Additionally, diphlor- ethohydroxycannalol isolated from Ishigeokanntrae showed potential skin whitening effects [51, 52].

Commonly available secondary metabolites (Phloroglucinol derivatives), which can be extracted from brown algae have tyrosinase inhibitory potential. This secondary metabolite chelates the copper, which inactivates this enzyme [65]. Few phlorotarrrrins (e.g., 7-phloroeckol and dioxinodehydroeckol) also showed the potential to inhibit tyrosinase activity. Their inhibition is stronger compared with inhibition of arbutin and kojic acids [185].

Also, biologically active metabolites (such as flavonoid glycoside obtained from Hizikia fusiformis) obtained from marine-based algae have the potential to inhibit tyrosinase enzyme [124]. They can efficiently be used as skin faire products. Utilization of marine algae has a beneficial edge due to having less toxic potential, wide acceptability, easy to use along with the decreased cost of production. These characteristics of marine algae can efficiently enhance female beauty. Nevertheless, extensive studies along with clinical trials are required for their whitening properties.

POTENTIAL BENEFITS FROM FISH: WOMEN HEALTH AND LONGEVITY

Fish is a source of numerous phytochemicals, which are significant for human health and proper body functions. These substances are comprised of several proteins required for cancer prevention and building of muscle mass, e.g.:

  • • Camosine to enhance skeletal muscle working [27] and for antiaging and antioxidative effects [168].
  • • Choline to reduce cardiovascular diseases (CVD); and to improve memory [111].
  • • Creatinine to improve athletic activity.
  • • Micro-substances, such as copper to maintain cardiovascular and brain system properly [47].
  • • Peptides to regulate blood pressure [155].
  • • Phosphorus to improve heart and kidney functioning and to speed up healing of broken bones [102].
  • • Taurine to lower high blood pressure and protect from neurodegen- erative disorders [12].
  • • Ubiquinone coenzyme to protect from suspected cardio effects and to slow down Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease [29].
  • • Vitamin A for protection from night blindness, cancer, and for fresh skin [48].

As compared to our current knowledge, future research may disclose other indications about these fish ingredients regarding their contribution to more health benefits. A possible component of a fish protein to reduce risks of T2D is an example in this direction [114].

FISH: BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS

Among all bioconstituents of fish, omega-3 FAs are best known for their health benefits. Seafoods like fish and algae among food sources are basic sources of long-chain FAs including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). One-third of fat in the fish muscle is composed of these long-chain FAs [50]. All known beneficial health effects of fish fat are due to both DHA and EPA. The term “fish oil” relates with intake of DHA and EPA either through fish consumption or through intake of isolated fish-oil products having DHA and EPA. For human health, both FAs are very crucial: (i) DHA is major fatty acid during development for human brain [88] and nerve endings [59]; (ii) human muscle and liver tissues has the highest level of EPA [125]. Human body requires alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to initiate the synthesis process of these FAs because both of these FAs cannot be synthesized by our body. Due to having the first double bond at position of third carbon from the tail starts, all of three DHA, EPA, and ALA belong to omega-3 fatty acid group.

Omega-3 FAs decrease the level of arachidonic acid (AA) in the phospholipid membrane of endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, and platelets, which result in the decreased production of AA-derived pro-inflammatory mediators including hydroxyl-eicosatetraenoic acid, leukotriene, prostaglandin, and thromboxane [183]. Consumption of EPA for a long duration prevents the activity of Rho-kinase that is responsible to down-regulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase and to up-regulate pro-inflammatory molecules [21].

hi inflammatory response, the downregulation of (NF)-kB activity has the main contribution in the regulation of gene expression. The omega-3 FAs decrease the transcription of inflammatory cytokines and activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor to inhibit the NF-kB activity [93]. All these effects are responsible for the potential of anti-inflammatory activity [11] of omega-3 FAs that also stabilize the unstable plaques [184]. Both EPA and DHA change the concentration of phospholipid in mitochondrial membrane leading to improved mitochondrial function and efficient generation of ATP, and all these effects result in cardioprotective action of omega-3 FAs [33].

EPA decreases thromboxane A2 synthesis (strong platelet agonist) and enhances the thromboxane A3 synthesis (relatively inactive) and conducts these reactions by competing with AA for lipo-oxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase enzymes. EPA also enhances three series PGs (propylene glycols), TXs (thromboxanes), and different groups of eicosanoids). Therefore, an increased dose of omega-3 FAs result in:(i) inhibitory effect of platelets [81]; (ii) reduction in the level of triglycerides by reducing the assembly of very-low-density lipoproteins and their secretion; (iii) inhibition of lipogenesis by reducing the activity of sterol receptor element-binding protein-lc; (iv) reduction in the fatty acid substrate to synthesize triglyceride; (v) enhancement of p-oxidation in peroxisomes and mitochondria. All these activities of omega-3 FAs are conducted through the activation of peroxisome PPAR-a (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors).

 
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