# Experimental Methods in Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics

Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Heat TransferConductionConvectionRadiationExperimental Methods in Heat Transfer and Fluid MechanicsProblemsReferencesVelocity and Flow Rate MeasurementsPressure MeasurementsPressure Units and QuantitiesStatic Pressure ProbesTotal and Static Pressure ProbesVelocity MeasurementsManometersPressure TransducersVelocity CalculationsFlow Rate MeasurementsDifferential Pressure MetersForce MetersFlow Rate CalculationsExperiment ExamplesProblemsReferencesTemperature and Heat Flux MeasurementsTemperature MeasurementsThermal Expansion Temperature SensorsElectrical Resistance Temperature SensorsThermocouple ThermometryFundamental Principles for ThermocouplesTypical Thermocouple Fabrication and CalibrationError Estimate in Temperature MeasurementsLead Wire ModelHigh Velocity Gas Temperature MeasurementsHeat Flux MeasurementsPower Sources with MetersTypical Heaters for Various ApplicationsError Estimate in Heat Flux MeasurementsProblemsReferencesExperimental Planning and Analysis of ResultsExperimental PlanningLiterature Survey and Equipment IdentificationTest Section Design, Fabrication, and InstrumentationFlow MeasurementExperimental Methods and Measurement TechniquesHeater Power SpecificationsHeater Power EstimationsTest Facility Calibrations and MeasurementsAnalysis of ResultsData Reduction and Uncertainty AnalysisOverall Uncertainty Based on the Second Power Equation in a Single-Sample ExperimentGeneralizationThe Uncertainty Based on the Precision Limit and the Bias LimitTest Uncertainty Performance Test CodeResults Comparisons and ConclusionsProblemsReferencesSteady-State Heat Transfer Measurement TechniquesIntroduction and Measurement TheoryFundamental Measurement Theory for Internal FlowsFundamental Measurement Theory for External FlowsSteady-State, Overall Average Heat Transfer Measurement TechniqueSingle Copper Plate with Heater and ThermocouplesExperiment ExampleMass Flow Rate CalculationHeat Loss Calibration (Raw Data)Heat Transfer Enhancement (Raw Data)Heat Transfer Enhancement Data ReductionSteady-State, Regional Average Heat Transfer Measurement TechniqueMultiple Copper Plates with Heaters and ThermocouplesExperiment ExampleBackground and Introduction to ExperimentMass Flow Rate CalculationHeat Loss Calibration (Raw Data)Heat Transfer Enhancement (Raw Data)Heat Transfer Enhancement Data ReductionFrictional Losses (Raw Data)Frictional Losses Data ReductionSteady-State, Local Heat Transfer Measurement TechniqueThin Foil Heaters with ThermocouplesExperiment ExampleBackground and Introduction to ExperimentFreestream Velocity CalculationAcquired Experimental Data (Heat Loss and Convective Heat Transfer Data)Airfoil Heat Transfer Coefficient DistributionsAdditional ReferencesProblemsReferencesTime Dependent Heat Transfer Measurement TechniquesIntroduction and Measurement TheoryTransient Lumped Capacitance Measurement TechniqueFundamental PrincipleImplementation of Lumped Capacitance Using ThermocouplesExperiment ExampleTransient Heat Flux Measurements for Local Heat Transfer CoefficientsFundamental PrincipleThin Film Heat Flux GaugesExperiment ExampleTransient Techniques for Measurement of Detailed Heat Transfer CoefficientsFundamental PrincipleOne-Dimensional Transient Heat Conduction with Surface ConvectionExperiment ExampleProblemsReferencesLiquid Crystal Thermography TechniquesMeasurement TheoryLiquid Crystal Thermography OverviewLiquid Crystal Thermography CalibrationSteady-State Local Heat Transfer Coefficient MeasurementSteady-State Detailed Heat Transfer Measurement TechniquesFundamental PrincipalHue Saturation Intensity (HSI) TechniqueTransient Detailed Heat Transfer Measurement TechniqueTransient HSI TechniqueTransient Single-Color Capturing TechniqueExperiment ExampleBackground Information and Heat Transfer TheoryHeat Transfer Measurement with Time-Dependent Mainstream TemperatureFilm Cooling EffectivenessProblemsReferencesOptical Thermography TechniquesInfrared Thermography (IR) TechniqueFundamental PrincipleSteady-State, Infrared Thermography TechniqueTransient, Infrared Thermography TechniqueExperiment ExampleProblemsReferencesPressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) and Temperature-Sensitive Paint (TSP) TechniquesPressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) TechniqueFundamental PrincipalPSP for Pressure MeasurementPSP for Film Cooling MeasurementExperiment ExampleTemperature-Sensitive Paint (TSP) TechniqueFundamental PrincipleSteady-State TSP TechniqueTransient TSP TechniqueExperiment ExampleProblemsReferencesMass Transfer Analogy Measurement TechniquesIntroductionNaphthalene Sublimation for Heat/Mass Transfer MeasurementsForeign Gas Concentration Sampling TechniqueAmmonia-Diazo TechniqueProblemsReferencesFlow and Thermal Field Measurement TechniquesMiniature Five-Hole and Seven-Hole ProbesFundamental Principles of Multiple-Hole ProbesMethods for Using the Five-Hole ProbeExperiment ExampleHot Wire AnemometryFundamental Principles of Hot Wire ProbesHot Wire Calibration—Constant Temperature Anemometer (CTA)Experiment ExampleCold-Wire AnemometryFundamental Principles of Cold Wire ProbesCold Wire Calibration—Constant Current Anemometer (CCA)Experiment ExampleProblemsReferencesFlow Field Measurements by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) TechniquesIntroduction to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)Fundamental Principles of PIVBasic System Components for Traditional PIV ExperimentsSeed ParticlesIllumination SystemCameras for PIVHardware SynchronizerGeneral Methodology for Image ProcessingRecent Advancements in PIVExperimental Examples of PIVOther ResourcesProblemsReferences