Data Sources and Methods

Primary data for this study were collected from January to March 2018 and January to March 2019 in three districts of Kigali city. We used interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD) with heads of households in three villages, where poor and vulnerable informal settlements dwellers have been resettled (see Figure 3.3). Our key informants range between 26 and 28 people, randomly selected from 104 households resettled in each village. Interviews were also conducted with land managers, urban planners, heads of social units in each district, and local leaders at each of the three villages. These interviews and FGD covered the following topics: selection of resettled households, status of land and housing ownership before the resettlement, perceptions of the resettled people on their land tenure security before and after their resettlement, access to basic amenities and employment in the new settlements, and types of support provided to them for the reconstitution of their livelihoods. Field observations consisted of collecting data on the quality of housing and access to basic amenities. Secondary data came from the review of laws, policies, and regulations related to urban (re) development in Rwanda, Kigali city development plans, and related activities reports. Qualitative content analysis of the provisions of the rules in use and pattern matching between these provisions, their implementation practices, and their outcomes was used to derive findings. We combined this analytical approach with indicators evaluating whether Kigali city (re)development advances spatial justice and land tenure security. The evaluative framework is presented in the next section.

Evaluative Framework

We used an analytical framework of spatial justice comprising a series of indicators connected to four forms of spatial justice and its three dimensions: rules, processes, and outcomes. “Rules” stands for law, policies, zoning regulations, master and physical development plans, political decisions applied in the (re)development of Kigali city, and resettlement of displaced people. “Processes” relates to implementation of these rules. “Outcomes” covers the aspects of peoples’ relations to space and includes access to housing and urban amenities, and tenure security (Uwayezu and de Vries, 2018). The framework is illustrated in Figure 3.1.

As Figure 3.1 shows, we applied the evaluative indicators connected to the three dimensions of spatial justice (discussed in the introduction) and its four forms, to derive insights on how Kigali

Framework for evaluating spatial justice and land tenure security in land resources management. (Source

FIGURE 3.1 Framework for evaluating spatial justice and land tenure security in land resources management. (Source: Adapted from Uwayezu and de Vries, 2018).

TABLE 3.1

Indicators Evaluating Trends of Spatial Justice and Land Tenure Security in the Resettlement Processes of Poor and Vulnerable Urban Dwellers in Kigali City

Dimension of spatial justice

Evaluative indicators

Related form of spatial justice

Procedural

Recognitional

Redistributive

Inter- and intra-

generational

Rules

1. Urban development and zoning rules promote the development of housing for poor and vulnerable groups.

/

/

/

/

2. Zoning rules promote the provision of basic urban amenities in settlements of poor and vulnerable groups.

/

/

/

/

3. Urban development rules promote the allocation of land and/or housing to poor and low-income groups.

/

/

/

/

Processes

4. Spatial development plans include resettlement sites for poor and vulnerable people living in slums.

/

/

/

5. Urban development budgets include funds for housing development for poor and vulnerable groups.

/

/

/

6. Relocation plans include funds for the provision of basic amenities in resettlement areas of poor and vulnerable people.

/

/

Outcomes

7. Displaced poor and vulnerable people are relocated in planned residential areas.

/

/

/

8. All displaced poor and vulnerable people are resettled in decent housing.

/

/

/

9. Resettlement sites for poor and vulnerable groups have basic amenities.

/

/

/

Sources: Adapted from Uwayezu and de Vries, 2018,

city management promotes access to housing and urban amenities for poor urban dwellers and their security of tenure. These indicators are presented in Table 3.1.

As Table 3.1 shows, the applied indicators relate to specific aspects which are largely observed in assessing whether rules and processes of urban development are just and promote access to basic urban resources and land tenure security. Findings are presented and discussed in Section 3.7 below.

Trends of Spatial Justice and Land Tenure Security in the Management of Kigali City

Our findings indicate good trends of spatial justice and elements of tenure security in rules underlying the resettlement of poor and vulnerable urban dwellers, their implementation practices, and their outcomes. These findings are summarized in Figure 3.2.

Patterns of spatial justice and land tenure derived from Kigali city (re)development schemes. (Data source

FIGURE 3.2 Patterns of spatial justice and land tenure derived from Kigali city (re)development schemes. (Data source: Review of rules in use, and field observations (January-March, 2018 and January-March, 2019)).

As Figure 3.2 shows, procedural justice (1) is embedded in urban land management rules binding Kigali city authorities, urban planners, and other decision-makers to promote inclusive and participatory urban (re)development, with due respect of rights to land, housing, and basic urban amenities for poor and vulnerable urban dwellers. Recognitional justice (2) is reflected in the increased recognition of these rights alongside the implementation practices of the rules in use. Redistributive justice (3) is reflected in the resettlement of these people in decent houses, developed in planned urban neighborhoods. It is also embedded in the cash compensation for people who cannot be resettled by the government due to limited financial resources. This has increased the perceptions of dwellers of informal settlements on their inclusion in the urban space and the recognition of their property rights. The integration of poor and vulnerable people in the city has also spurred the inter- and intrageneration justice (4), because it resulted in the creation of a good social and spatial environment in which they enjoy their rights to basic goods and commodities. Through increased feelings of their inclusion in the city and the financial support they receive, they invest in income generation activities to get out of poverty and improve their livelihoods. The next subsection discusses in detail how these outcomes have been attained.

 
Source
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