Biotechnological Approaches in Food Adulterants

Overview of Food Adulteration from the Biotechnological PerspectiveFood Fraud and Food AdulterationTypes of Food AdulterationSubstitutionAdditionRemoval and/or Intentional Decrease in the Content of Authentic and Valuable IngredientsImpact of Food Adulteration on Food Quality, Safety, and MarketPotential Health Risks to ConsumersEconomic LossOther ImpactsTrend and Characteristics of Food Adulteration in the Global MarketFood Adulteration ActConclusion and Future OutlookAcknowledgementReferencesAn Overview of Potential Toxicity of Food Adulterants and Food Adulteration ActIntroductionClassification of Food AdulterantsFood Adulterants with Potential Toxicity and Health ImpactAdulteration of Different Food ItemsMilk AdulterationMetallic/Dye ContaminantsMicrobiological/Mycotoxins ContaminationInsecticide/Pesticide Residues on Fruits and VegetablesFood Adulteration Act (National and International Perspective)Countrywise Food Regulations in Developed CountriesFood Regulations Among Developing CountriesPatents Related to Food Security and SafetyDiscussion and Future ProspectsAcknowledgementReferencesAdvances in Technologies used in the Detection of Food AdulterationFood Adulteration in the 21st CenturyAnalytical Approaches in the Detection of AdulterantsChromatographic TechnologyHigh Performance Liquid ChromatographyGas ChromatographyThin-layer ChromatographySpectroscopic TechnologiesUV-Vis SpectroscopyFluorescence SpectroscopyInfrared SpectroscopyNear-infrared (NIR) SpectroscopyMid-infrared (MIR) SpectroscopyRaman SpectroscopyHyperspectral Imaging (HSI)Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) SpectroscopyBiotechnical Approaches in the Detection of AdulterantsImmunological TechniquesDNA-based TechniquesBiosensor-based TechniquesConclusion and the Challenge in Detecting Food AdulterationReferencesFood Colours: The Potential Sources of Food Adulterants and their Food Safety ConcernsIntroductionClassification of Food ColoursNaturally Occurring Food ColorantsRecent Trends in the Use of Food AdditivesE NumbersNew Perspectives on Techniques and PigmentsPotential Wellspring of Nourishment AdulterantsTypes of Food AdulterantsConclusionAcknowledgementReferencesInnovative and Emerging Technologies in the Detection of Food AdulterantsIntroductionFood AdulterationThe Most Common Food Items that are Adulterated and its Associated Side EffectsMajor Instrumental Techniques in Food AnalysisGas Chromatography (GC) in Food AnalysisHPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography) for High Performance in Food AnalysisHigh Performance Capillary Electrophoresis (HPCE) for Food AnalysisLC-MS (Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry) for Food AnalysisLC-QQQ MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry Occupied with Triple Quadrupole Detector)LC-QToF—Quadrupole Time of Flight for Non-target Pesticide AnalysisIon Chromatograph (1C) for the Detection of Charged Species in FoodGCMS-QQQ (MS/MS) Gas Chromatograph Triple Quad System for the Analysis of Pesticides in Food SamplesPCR and RT-PCR—Real-Time Polymerase Reaction System for GM Food and Pathogen DetectionDNA Sequencing to Detect DNA/RNA/Protein Adulterants in FoodGraphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (GFAA) to Detect the Presence of Heavy Metals in FoodUV-Vis Spectrophotometer to Identify Inorganic and Organic Compounds in FoodKjeldahl MethodDispersive and Raman Spectroscopy for Molecular Analysis of FoodFTIR for Food AnalysisNuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) for Food AnalysisOther Techniques Used for Food AnalysisConclusionReferencesContributions of Omics Approaches for the Detection of Food AdulterantsIntroductionFood Adulterant IssuesApplication of Omics Approaches in Food SafetyPatent Studies in Omics Approaches for the Detection of Food AdulterantsConclusion and Future OpportunitiesAcknowledgmentsReferencesAdvances in Proteomics Approaches for Food AuthenticationIntroductionProteomics Tool for Food Technology ResearchPeptide-based Proteomics/Bottom-up ProteomicsPeptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF)Application of Proteomics in Food AuthenticationMilk and Dairy ProductsMeatFishWineGenetically Modified (GM) CropsConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesContributions of Fingerprinting Food in the Detection of Food AdulterantsIntroductionFactors Involved in Generation of Food FingerprintsBiomarkers for Food AuthenticityVarious Tools and Techniques Involved in Food FingerprintingMS FingerprintingChromatographic FingerprintingElectrophoresis FingerprintingSpectroscopic FingerprintingOther Food Fingerprinting TechniquesConclusionReferencesNanosensors as Potential Multisensor Systems to Ensure Safe and Quality FoodIntroductionBiosensorsClassification of BiosensorsNanosensors in the Food IndustryClassification of NanosensorsNanomaterial-based SensorsNanoparticle-based SensorsNanotube-based SensorsNanowire BiosensorsApplications of Nanosensors in the Food IndustryNanosensors for the Analysis of Nutritional Components in FoodNanosensors for Detection of Freshness and Shelf-life of FoodSmart/lntelligent Food Packaging SensorsNanosensors for Artificial Smell and TasteNanosensors for Sensing Food PreservativesNanosensors for Pathogen and Toxin SensingNanosensors for Sensing Adulterant and AllergensNanosensors for Product AuthenticityChallenges in Using Nanosensors for Food-based ApplicationsConclusionReferencesGlobal Perspective of Sensors for the Detection of Food AdulterantsIntroductionFood AdulterantsOccurrenceFood Adulteration, Toxicity and Human HealthGlobal Lethal Case History of AdulterantsGlobal Rescue Initiative from AdulterationConventional Methods for Identification by FSSAICurrent Scenario of Biosensor MarketFood Adulterants and BiosensorsFabrication of Commonly Utilized Biosensors for AdulterantsBased on Transducing ElementLatest Trends in Biosensor for Adulterant IdentificationSmartphoneArtificial IntelligencePaperbasedPros and Cons of Adulterant Identification-based BiosensorFuture Market Demand for Adulterant Identification-based BiosensorConclusionAcknowledgementAbbreviationsReferencesApplication of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Advancement of Safety Issues of FoodsIntroductionNanoencapsulation of Foods or Food-allied MoleculesLipid-based Nanoencapsulation for Food PreservationProtein-based NanoencapsulationPlant-based Nanoencapsulated PreservativesProduction TechniquesNanotechnology-mediated Food SafetyFuture Aspects, Potential Risks and Emerging Food IndustryComputing in Biotechnology for Food AdulterantsIntroductionComputational Biotechnology for Food AdulterationBig Data ScienceData Mining and Its Importance in Food AnalysisAlternative Data Mining Methods for Food AnalysisCurrent Data Mining and Analysis Software in Food IndustryApplication of Data Mining for Authentication of Food ItemsPlant-based Food ItemsFood Items Derived from Animal OriginFermented Food and BeveragesConclusionAcknowledgmentReferences
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