The need for food is increasing exponentially across the globe. The strengthening and usage of modern techniques help in getting better outputs in the form of quality and quantity. In the modern era, usage of IoT greatly adds weightage in the field of agriculture. IoT basically incorporates sensing, data transfer, followed by data storage and manipulation as three layers. Each layer works based on Internet connectivity with RFID and WSN technologies. Utilizing the various sensors and other hardware components helps in monitoring and controlling agriculture, as well as supply chain management in the food sector. Challenges based on hardware, software, and network security need to be taken into consideration (Tzounis et al. 2017).
Climate smart agriculture is interesting in the field of agriculture to increase yield. Three pillars considered in this are a sustainable increase in the productivity of agriculture and livestock, familiarization to climate alteration, and working effectively to reduce the greenhouse emissions. Various approaches including simulation modeling, optimization methods, cost-benefit analysis, econometrics, ranking, meta-analysis, spatial analysis, and integrated assessing modeling are used to set the priorities that boost productivity (Thornton et al. 2018).
Deep learning is a booming technology in agriculture for early detection of leaf diseases, tracing weed, classifying lands, recognizing plants, and fruit calculation. By utilizing the deep learning concepts, visualization for various datasets with greater clarity is retrieved. It provides better output for performance metrics compared to other traditional methods. Therefore, data is required for preprocessing and for other steps to be incorporated (Kamilaris & Prenafeta-Boldu 2018). Big data analytics work with a versatile and large dataset. A smart farming framework includes data chain, farm management, farm processes, along with network management to carry out analysis and take decisions. Data chain comprises data capture, storage, transfer, transformation, analytics, and marketing. Tasks and attaining them falls under farm process and management. The hardware, software, and peripherals working in a coordinated manner comprise network management (Wolfert et al. 2017).
Internet of underground thing is the latest in the smart agriculture era for precision-based cultivation. The sensors used in this helps to find moisture of soil, physical attributes of soil, soil macronutrients that help obtain the best yields (Vuran et al. 2018). Opinion mining is deployed in the governance of sustainable agriculture. The framework consists of the data collection phase, preprocessing of the same by removing duplication, stemming, selection of attributes, special characters removal, followed by opinion classification via naive Bayesian, support vector machine, multilayer perceptron, k-Nearest neighbor, decision tree, as well as evaluation measures such as precision, recall, and accuracy (Kumar & Sharma 2018).
Smart city is the ultimate goal of many developing nations and its the matter of integrating various services in a unified manner. Economic and social development of people is possible if all sectors work in an indigenous manner to achieve this goal. Internet usage is having a greater impact on the lifestyle of individuals. All fields ranging from transportation, agriculture, healthcare, inventory system, to manufacturing system are experiencing exponential growth. Large amounts of data are being generated with electronic technologies, and analyzing the same has immense potential in providing smart city features on the whole.
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