Big Data Management Solutions for IoT: Case Study – Connected Car

Introduction

The most important technology that is expected to rule the future world is the IoT (Internet of Tilings). It is gaining momentum and grabbing the attention of a wide range of industries. It is a new technology visualized as an international network of machines and devices, competent in interacting with each other. Currently, about 10 billion IoT devices are in use. This will increase to more than 64 billion by 2025 [1]. Over several thousands of exabytes of data are generated through sensors built into the IoT devices which are connected to the Internet. The continued growth of the IoT industry influences all the organizations across the world. It is expected that the IoT market will grow to over $3 trillion annually by 2026 if all the organizations exploit the power of the IoT and Internet effectively. Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research [2] revealed that key IoT attributes (sensing, efficient, networked, specialized, everywhere) can change the direction of the development of tech companies toward new product cycles with cost and energy efficiency.

By definition, the IoT, which connects machines and devices, can send data and interact with other things and people connected to it. These devices can be connected with the digital world to

■ Enhance customer service

■ Build new products and services for revenue generation

■ Streamline the operations and infrastructure

■ Reduce system downtime by identifying and resolving the bottlenecks

■ Make decisions concerning future infrastructure investments intelligently

■ Predict and rectify the mean time to failure for machinery.

The things in IoT generate massive volumes of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data. It is a complex task to collect, prepare, and analyze these data. Gaining insights from voluminous and different types (structured, semi-structured or unstructured) of data is beyond the scope of the traditional enterprise data warehouses (EDWs) and business intelligence (BI) software. In this context, harnessing a big data platform that can assist in collecting, preparing, and analyzing diverse data sources becomes essential [3]. Nowadays, various analytical techniques including incremental approaches, granular computing, machine learning, and deep learning are applied to face big data challenges and for stream processing [4]. According to Goldman Sachs [2], the most recent areas of applications with the IoT are wearables, connected homes, connected cities, the industrial Internet, and connected cars.

According to a report published by Allied Market Research [5], the global autonomous vehicle market is anticipated to rise from $54.23 billion in 2019 to $556.67 billion by 2026. Recently, the automotive digital technology is focusing on enhancing the in-car experience. The connected car is one such initiative. A car that is equipped with Internet connectivity and able to communicate and share the Internet access with other devices, both inside as well as outside the vehicle, is a connected car. Currently the leaders in the connected car market are Google, Delphi Automotive, General Motors, Audi AG, Ford Motor Company, AT&T, NXP Semiconductors, Alcatel-Lucent, BMW, and Apple [6]. This chapter elaborates on the connected car, its architecture, the leveraging technologies, and solutions for it.

Connected Car

A connected car is a car that is equipped with Internet access that allows the car to share data through Internet access, with other devices both inside and outside the vehicle [6]. Earlier in 2011, Kleberger et al. [7] outlined that a connected car consists of three domains: the vehicle, the automotive company portal to deliver services, and a communication link between the vehicle and the portal. These cars focus mainly on the in-vehicle wireless network that connects all the electronic components of the vehicle to control the car.

The picture of a connected car is shown in Figure 13-1. In 2014, the Future of Privacy Forum [8] elucidated that the car which has in-car telematics with connectivity through the Internet or via dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) for better diagnostics and to offer protection, convenience, and communication services is referred to as a connected car. A connected car has the potential to reduce traffic blockage. It also assists in reducing both vehicular emissions and energy consumption.

Currently, 20% of cars worldwide have Wi-Fi capabilities. It is expected to increase to 50% by 2023 [9]. These Wi-Fi capabilities lead to a variety of applications that can be categorized into infotainment (in-car applications) and telematics (external Wi-Fi applications). These capabilities have changed the car from being a mode of transport to a place for work and entertainment.

Connected car [45]

Figure 13.1 Connected car [45].

Different Modes of Connections

The Internet connectivity in a connected car is made possible by a Wi-Fi connection through a built-in embedded modem on board called a telematics control unit (TCU) inside the car [10]. With the aid of the Internet, the car can support onboard vehicle-to-sensor on board (V2S), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to- road infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-Internet (V2I) interactions. Based on the type of interaction, the car has to apply a form of technology linked with that respective connection. The connectivity can be classified as intra-vehicle connectivity, inter-vehicle connectivity, and V2I connectivity [11].

 
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